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[Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn: A Translation of Daivd Nicolle's Work on Saladin with Commentary]
ولكون ديفيد نيكول، مُؤرِّخًا عسكريًّا إنكليزيًّا، له كِتاباتٌ ثِقَالُ الوَطْأَة في الغرب، تتَّسمُ بالموضوعيَّة إلى حدٍّ كبيرٍ، ويأتي في سَنَام أعْماله هذا الكِتاب الذي نحنُ في رِحابه نتجوَّلُ وعمَّا قريبٍ سنقطفُ من ثماره اليُنْع؛ إذ يتناوَلُ الجانِبَ القياديَّ والإستراتيجيَّ والصِّراعيَّ من مسيرة صلاح الدِّين على نحوٍ أَخَصَّ، ومن ثَمَّ وقع عليه اخْتِياري. فالمُؤلِّف يتَّخذُ موقفَ بينَ بينَ من صلاح الدِّين، مُتجنِّبًا التَّفريط والإفْراط: فلا هو بالمُؤيِّد القُحِّ، ولا هو بالمُتحامِل الإدِّ، وإنْ كان إلى الحِياد أقرب

Saladin lived at a time when the Islamic world was going through profound changes. Since the later 11th century Turkish ruling elites had dominated most of the IslamicMiddle East. In military terms Arabs and Persians were being pushed aside, though they continued to dominate the religious, cultural and commercial elites.Meanwhile Kurds had only limited and localized importance, which makes the rise of a man of Kurdish origins like Saladin all the more unusual.
Multidisciplinary Perspectives from the Ancient to the Early Modern World
Elements, Nature, Environment: Multidisciplinary Perspectives from the Ancient to the Early Modern World publishes high-quality scholarship that explores the relationship between the elements and the environment, covering the periods from antiquity to early modern. The series encourages cutting-edge research with a wide range of interdisciplinary approaches in the fields of including (but not limited to) history of science, philosophy, linguistics, literature, history, art history, and eco-criticism, ranging from Northern Europe and the Mediterranean world to Africa and the Middle East, India, Japan, China, and other regions.

Contributions may cover the areas of history of the elements and elemental theory; environment, cosmology, and climate; well-being and the human body alongside food, nutrition, diets, herbs as well as its relevance for pharmacology and medicine; disasters and epidemics; animal lore, agriculture, and landscapes; maps and diagrams; weather, meteorology, and religion. These and other related themes could be explored either diachronically or by focusing on any specific time period between antiquity and early modern. The series promotes collaborative and comparative analysis of textual or visual sources from different traditions and historical periods, and maps points of intersection alongside differences in the way in which various civilisations understood their place within nature and the environment around them. Inter-, multi-, and cross-disciplinary approaches are particularly welcomed.

The series operates with a variety of formats, from monographs and edited thematic collections to critical editions and translations into English.
Der vorliegende Band widmet sich der Untersuchung des Briefverkehrs zwischen Eltern und ihren Kindern, wie er uns auf Papyrus und Ostraka aus dem 1. bis 3. Jh. n.Chr. erhalten ist. Im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Studie steht die Ausdrucksweise der Emotionen, die charakteristisch für diese Korrespondenz ist. Dabei wird gezeigt, wie Solidarität und Konflikte zwischen Generationen in diesen Briefen zum Ausdruck kommen. Zugleich werden soziokulturelle Aspekte des römischen Ägyptens, welche im Hintergrund der Eltern-Kind-Beziehung stehen, berücksichtigt. In einigen Fällen werden neue Ergänzungsvorschläge sowie Neulesungen und damit innovative Interpretationen der oft nur fragmentarisch erhaltenen Briefe vorgelegt.
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Abstract

This article presents the all-but-lost Armenian inscription ostensibly recording an order from the last years of the Qaraquyunlu ‘Turkmen’ ruler qara Yūsuf (d. 1420 A.D.) at the church of the monastery of Arcowaber, now located in the center of the village of Salmanağa (Erciş, Van) in Turkey. A subsequent article discusses the date of the inscription together with its historical context and function. The present contribution establishes the layout and form of the text, including an extensive commentary of its terminology and content.

In: Iran and the Caucasus
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Abstract

Dargāhqolī Khān, also known as Moʿtaman-al-Dawla Moʿtaman-al-Molk Sālār-J̌ang and Khān-e Dawrān Navāb, was a high-ranking Iranian official at the court of the Neżāms of Hyderabad and Awrangābād for several generations, best known for his description of Delhi. He was descended from Khāndānqolī Khān Δolqadr, a member of the Bōrbōr sub-tribe who had joined the line of Torkman chiefs in the region of Mašhad and had migrated to India in 1048 A.H./1638 A.D. The paper presents a brief note on the biography of this prominent Indian politician of Iranian descent.

In: Iran and the Caucasus
In: Iran and the Caucasus

Abstract

The formation of new organizational activities with different approaches was one of the consequences of the events of September 1941 and after. The Women’s Democratic Organization (WDO) affiliated to the Tudeh Party (Ḥezb-e-tūde) was one of these new organizational activities. This study employs the historical-descriptive and content analysis approaches to investigate the historical aspects of WDO. The authors state that the opposition of traditional groups, the re-emergence of political repression, and the acceptance of the Tudeh Party ideology led to the failure of the WDO to achieve its goals.

In: Iran and the Caucasus

Abstract

Despite the fact that Sogdian documents found in Dunhuang mainly concerned the Buddhist faith, they preserved important evidence about names and descriptions of deities rooted in the traditional religion of Sogdiana. This was a local form of Zoroastrianism called Xian in Chinese chronicles. Two 8th–9th cc. A.D. Buddhist texts in Sogdian from Dunhuang explicitly associated three Xian deities to Indian counterparts and even described their attributes. This paper discusses one deity not associated with any Sogdian god, namely Vreshman or Vaishramana, the Buddhist guardian (or lokapala) of the north. Sogdians probably identified him with Tish who usually appeared in pre-Islamic Sogdian art together with Nana.

In: Iran and the Caucasus

Abstract

The article presents the publication of an unknown decree of Nādir Šāh issued in December 1742/January 1743 at the request of the Armenian merchants of Agulis. It examines the taxes levied from the merchants and the ways of tax extortion and excesses committed by Nādir Šāh’s administration in that period. The article contains a short review of the historical background of the document, the economic situation in the Nādir Šāh’s empire including Agulis.

In: Iran and the Caucasus
Author:

Abstract

The present paper argues for the existence of an ablative-instrumental case in Kushan Bactrian with the endings -α (from original a-stems) and -να ~ -νο (from the Old Iranian pronominal declension). While the corpus is small and many details remain unknown or speculative, there are enough such case forms to show that the Kushan Bactrian case system is more archaic than often thought. It further becomes clear from the examples that the ablative-instrumental case had largely two functions: Several times it is used a prepositional case and, once, to mark the ergative agent of a transitive past tense verb. The existence of an ablative-instrumental in Bactrian as such, its endings and its functions have good parallels in other Middle and New Iranian languages spoken in the region, and should therefore not be too surprising for the Bactrian language of the 2nd century A.D.

In: Iran and the Caucasus