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Author: Oliver Krüger


The article raises the question of how the multiplication of topics, turns, and perspectives in the currents of the study of religions can be explained. After the concept of a paradigm shift (Thomas Kuhn) is introduced, the study examines the epistemological consequences of the question What is religion? It is based on analyzing the practice of defining “religion” in German-language encyclopedias of the past three centuries. Surprisingly, the structure of these articles is largely persistent throughout this long period and consists mainly of etymology, definition (Wesensbestimmung), and a typology of “religion.” From this, an Aristotelian paradigm can be deduced. The claim for universality entailed in this paradigm ultimately led to a crisis and since the 1960s the study of religions has developed alternative approaches that emphasize aspects of human interaction, communication, and reciprocal relationships. I propose to subsume these new perspectives under the term “a relational paradigm.” Examples and consequences for this paradigm are offered in the conclusion.

In: Numen
Established in 2010 to meet a growing international interest in Balkan studies, the Balkan Studies Library series publishes high-quality disciplinary and interdisciplinary research on all aspects of the Balkans with a focus on history, politics and culture. The region is defined here as comprising Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey and the countries of former Yugoslavia, including their imperial Ottoman and Habsburg heritage.

The series publishes monographs, collective volumes, and editions of source materials. Disciplines covered include history, anthropology, archaeology, political science, sociology, legal studies, economy, religion, literary studies, cultural studies, gender studies, film, theatre and media studies, art history, language and linguistics. The editors especially welcome comparative studies, be they comparisons between individual Balkan countries, or of (parts of) the region with other countries and regions. All submissions are subject to anonymous peer review by leading specialists.

Until Volume 27, the series was published by Brill, click here.
The series does not publish conference proceedings.
Brill Companions Online is a suite of e-book collections comprising state-of-the art research companions in various subject fields within the humanities. Peer reviewed and written by experts, these handbooks offer balanced accounts at an advanced level, along with an overview of the state of scholarship and a synthesis of debate, pointing the way for future research. Designed for students and scholars, the books explain what sources there are, what methodologies and approaches are appropriate in dealing with them, what issues arise and how they have been treated, and what room there is for disagreement. All volumes are in English.

Brill Companions Online can be purchased as a whole, but is also available in six different subject categories.

Features & Benefits
• Over 20 years of content.
• Online access to 345 reference works.
• Over 6,000 essays purpose-written by leading experts.
• Sophisticated tools allow for exporting citations, save searches and sharing content.
• Easy navigation through full-text search and metadata search.
• Students and faculty will have the option to order their own $25 paperback copy of each title in the collection through Brill’s MyBook program.

Please note that titles published since 2007, with the exception of those included in Brill’s Companions to Classical Studies Online, are also available in other E-Book collections.
Brill’s Companions to European History is a peer reviewed series research companions providing high-level and up-to-date surveys of themes, persons, movements, currents, events in European history from 400 AD to the present. Written by the foremost specialists in the respective fields, they offer balanced accounts, along with an overview of the state of scholarship and a synthesis of debate, pointing the way for future research. The books are normally multi-author volumes, thoroughly planned out at an editorial level to ensure comprehensiveness and cohesion, maximising their value to the student and scholar.

Authors are cordially invited to submit proposals and/or full manuscripts to the Publisher at Brill, Dr Kate Hammond.

Brill is in full support of Open Access publishing and offers the option to publish your monograph, edited volume, or chapter in Open Access. Our Open Access services are fully compliant with funder requirements. We support Creative Commons licenses. For more information, please visit Brill Open or contact us at

"Brill's Companions to European History have become essential research guides to cardinal topics in the field." - Robert Jones Clines, in: Journal of Jesuit Studies, 6 (2019)
Series Editors: Karsten Brüggemann and Mati Laur
Seit 2006 geben Mati Laur (Universität Tartu) und Karsten Brüggemann (Universität Tallinn) in enger Kooperation mit Kollegen der Universität Lettlands in Riga ein deutschsprachiges Jahrbuch heraus, das aktuelle Forschungen zur baltischen Geschichte veröffentlicht. Die FzbG sind eine vorrezensierte wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der estnischen Akademischen Historischen Gesellschaft (Akadeemiline ajalooselts). Sie verstehen sich als ein akademisches Journal im Bereich der historischen Area studies, die es sich zur Aufgabe gemacht hat, den Austausch verschiedener nationaler Historiografien auf wissenschaftlicher Grundlage zu betreiben. Über den jeweils engen sprachlichen Rahmen der einzelnen Staaten Estland, Lettland und Litauen hinaus soll nicht zuletzt die innerbaltische fachliche Kommunikation gefördert werden. Die FzbG pflegen einen regionalen Schwerpunkt auf dem „historischen“ Baltikum (Estland, Livland und Kurland, d.h. ungefähr die heutigen Republiken Estland und Lettland), doch sind auch Beiträge zur litauischen Geschichte willkommen, da Litauen spätestens seit dem 20. Jahrhundert einen integralen Bestandteil „baltischer“ Geschichte bildet. Der zeitliche Rahmen der Artikel reicht aber von der Frühzeit bis zur post-sowjetischen Periode. Wir sind darüber hinaus insbesondere an Beiträgen interessiert, die sich mit den überregionalen Zusammenhängen in Nordosteuropa auseinandersetzen.
Die Sprachen dieser Zeitschrift sind Deutsch und Englisch mit Zusammenfassungen in der jeweils anderen Sprache. Dass die meisten Beiträge auf Deutsch publiziert werden, folgt einer historischen Tradition, da ein Großteil sowohl des Quellenbestands als auch der Historiografie zum historischen Baltikum deutschsprachig ist.
Die Herausgeber halten die Heranziehung von Fachleuten aus den Nachbarländern und anderen nicht-baltischen Staaten für eine ihrer wichtigsten Aufgaben, wofür auch das internationale Redaktionskollegium steht. Dabei ist vor allem an den umfangreichen Rezensionsteil gedacht, der über die wichtigsten neuesten Publikationen zur baltischen Geschichte informieren soll. Die mittlerweile erschienenen Bände demonstrieren, dass „baltische Geschichte“ heute einen wesentlichen regionalen Aspekt der Geschichte des Ostseeraums und damit ganz Europas (inkl. Russlands) darstellt. In den ersten zehn Jahren ihres Bestehens haben die FzbG Beiträge von Autorinnen und Autoren aus den drei baltischen Staaten, Deutschland, der Russländischen Föderation, Finnland, Schweden, Dänemark, Österreich, den Niederlanden, Italien, den USA und Kanada publizieren können. In diesem Sinne sieht sich die Redaktion in einem wachsenden internationalen Resonanzrahmen.

Mati Laur (Tartu University) and Karsten Brüggemann (Tallinn University) in close cooperation with colleagues from the University of Latvia in Riga have been editing a German-language yearbook presenting fresh studies on the history of the Baltic states. “Forschungen zur baltischen Geschichte” (Studies on Baltic History, FzbG) since 2006. The Studies on Baltic History (FzbG) is a peer-reviewed academic journal of the Estonian Historical Academic Society (Akadeemiline ajalooselts). They see themselves as an academic journal in the field of historical area studies that wants to encourage the scientifically-based exchange between the various national historiographies. Transgressing the small respective linguistic spheres of the nation states Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the FzbG wants to contribute to the inner-Baltic professional discussion about the past. The regional focus of the journal lies in the historical Baltikum, the former Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire (Estland, Livland and Kurland, roughly the modern states of Estonia and Latvia), but contributions to Lithuanian history are also welcome because since the 20th century Lithuania forms an integral part of “Baltic” history. The time frame of articles published in FzbG, however, ranges from prehistory to the post-Soviet period. Moreover, we encourage in particular contributions that deal with the transregional interconnections in the broader geographical area of North-Eastern Europe.
This journal publishes texts in German and English with summaries, respectively, in English and German. The majority of articles are published in German, in which we follow the historical tradition since a major part of the archival sources and the older historiography about the Baltikum is in German.
The main task of the editors and the international editorial board is the involvement of experts from neighbouring and other non-Baltic countries. This is especially true for the extensive section of reviews informing about the latest publications on Baltic history. So far the published volumes of FzbG demonstrates quite successfully that the history of the Baltic states today is an important aspect of the past of the Baltic Sea area and thus the whole of Europe including Russia. During the first ten years of its existence, FzbG enjoyed the participation of authors from the three Baltic States, Germany, Russian Federation, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Netherlands, Italy, USA and Canada. In this understanding, the editors see themselves corresponding to a growing international resonance space.
History of European Political and Constitutional Thought is a peer-reviewed series of monographs, edited collections, and newly edited primary sources. It promotes the study of European traditions of political and constitutional thought from classical antiquity to the twentieth century. The series brings to its geographical, historical and thematic focus the full range of methods established in the field, from contributions on the conventional canon to comparative, transnational, global and critical approaches, while also aiming to foster new methodologies.

Authors are cordially invited to submit proposals and/or full manuscripts to the Publisher at Brill Wendel Scholma.

Brill Open offers you the choice to make your research freely accessible online in exchange for a Publication Charge. This can be by choice or to comply with funding mandates or university requirements. Brill offers various options of Open Access; for more information please go to the Brill Open webpage.
Herausgegeben im Auftrag des Kreises Paderborn von Kirsten John-Stucke
Series Editor: Marcel van der Linden
For a long time, historiography was the sum of national efforts. Historians automatically thought and wrote within the framework of nation states – even when discussing “foreign policy” and “inter-national” topics. “Globalization” is beginning to change their approach. Now that borders have become more fluid in contemporary society, and interest in transnational processes is increasing, the principles of the methodological nationalism of the past are undergoing a critical review. A different view of global cohesion parallels this trend. Until recently, the North Atlantic perspective dominated the mental world order: the “modern” period was believed to have started in Europe and North America and to have spread gradually throughout the rest of the world; the temporality of the core area was considered to have defined developmental periods elsewhere as well. This Eurocentrism is now under fire, and many attempts to circumvent it are in progress. The peer-reviewed book series Studies in Global Social History figures within these new trends. Each volume in this series addresses (the connections between) macro-regions and aims to visualize contrasts and similarities, to demonstrate how our present global society has materialized from uneven and combined developments and from interaction between acts “from above” and “from below”: from rulers, entrepreneurs, politicians, and administrators on the one hand and from slaves, peasants, indentured labourers, wage-earners, and housewives on the other hand.

Authors are cordially invited to submit proposals and/or full manuscripts to either the series editor Marcel van der Linden or the publisher at BRILL, Wendel Scholma.

The series includes the subseries Studies in Global Migration History and Studies in the Social History of the Global South.

Brill Open offers you the choice to make your research freely accessible online in exchange for a Publication Charge. This can be by choice or to comply with funding mandates or university requirements. Brill offers various options of Open Access; for more information please go to the Brill Open webpage.

The series published an average of 3,5 volumes per year over the last 5 years.