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Author: Brian Madigan
Andrea Fulvio’s Illustrium imagines and the Beginnings of Classical Archaeology is a study of the book acknowledged by contemporaries to be the first attempt (1517) to publish artifacts from Classical Antiquity, in the form of a chronology of portraits appearing on coins. The study determines which represented coins correspond to genuine, ancient coins, and the degree of their accuracy in reproducing the legends, and the iconography and style of the originals. The study then addresses the methodology by which Fulvio attempted to exploit coins as historical documents, intersecting with humanist literary and historical studies of ancient Rome, the reception of ancient artifacts, and the response of visual artists to ancient portrait renderings.
Burial Assemblages at the National Museum of Denmark Gate of the Priests Series Volume 2
Previously unpublished, the Danish Lot of antiquities from the Tomb of the Priests of Amun (Bab el-Gasus) is thoroughly examined in this book. The in-depth analysis of the objects is followed by an assessment of how these objects were crafted, designed, used and recycled in the Theban necropolis, a procedure that not only reveals to be instrumental in the dating of the objects, as it sheds light into the extraordinary dynamics of funerary workshops during the 21st Dynasty.
The volume also examines the arrival of the Lot and its reception in Denmark.
Public Porticoes, Small Baths, Shops/Workshops, and ‘Middle Class’ Houses in the East Mediterranean
Author: Solinda Kamani
This book examines neglected architectural decoration from the late antique city of the East Mediterranean. It addresses the omission in scholarship of discussion about the embellishment of non-monumental secular buildings (public porticoes, small public baths, shops/workshops, and non-elite houses). The finishing of these structures has been overlooked at the expense of more lofty buildings and remains one of the least known aspects of the late antique city.
The book surveys the archaeological evidence for decoration in the region, with the maritime sites of Ostia and Ephesus selected as case studies. Drawing upon archaeological, written, and visual sources, it attempts to reconstruct how such buildings appeared to late antique viewers and investigates why they were decorated as they were.
Transylvania has some of the most valuable monuments of medieval architecture in Europe. The oldest church was built in the 10th century, but most others came into being only after 1200. Later changes have considerably modified the appearance of still-standing buildings. Written sources are lacking for answers to questions about the identity of the builders and patrons. Countering the idea that only standing structures can reflect the history of medieval churches in Transylvania, this book uses archaeological sources in order to answer some of those questions and to bring to light the hidden past of many monuments.
Construction Processes and Transmission of Knowledge from Late Antiquity to Early Islam
Volume Editor: Piero Gilento
This edited volume examines the construction processes and the mechanisms of transmission of knowledge between the eastern and western Mediterranean lands from the late Roman period to the early centuries of Islam. The essays explore issues of material culture, craft techniques, technological and typological changes and cultural contacts in Syria, Jordan, North Africa and Spain. The volume includes case studies on prestigious architectural complexes, defensive systems and other structures located in major urban centres (Cyrrhus, Bosra, Jerash, Sousse, Kairouan and Cordoba), as well as minor sites and rural buildings. It offers a fresh contribution to the long-lasting historiographic debate on the transition from antiquity to the Middle Ages and how Early Islamic architecture fostered the structural assumptions for new building experiences in many Mediterranean regions.

Contributors: Antonio Almagro, Shaker Al Shbib, Stefano Anastasio, Ignacio Arce, Jean-Claude Bessac, Pascale Clauss-Balty, Piero Gilento, Mattia Guidetti, Pedro Gurriarán Daza, Roberto Parenti, Pauline Piraud-Fournet, María de los Ángeles Utrero Agudo, Jean-Pierre van Staëvel, Apolline Vernet, François Villeneuve.
Little is known about the Christianization of east-central and eastern Europe, due to the fragmentary nature of the historical record. Yet occasionally, unexpected archaeological discoveries can offer fresh angles and new insights. This volume presents such an example: the discovery of a Byzantine-like church in Alba Iulia, Transylvania, dating from the 10th century - a unique find in terms of both age and function. Next to its ruins, another church was built at the end of the 11th century, following a Roman Catholic architectural model, soon to become the seat of the Latin bishopric of Transylvania.

Who built the older, Byzantine-style church, and what was the political, religious and cultural context of the church? How does this new discovery affect our perception of the ecclesiastical history of Transylvania? A new reading of the archaeological and historical record prompted by these questions is presented here, thereby opening up new challenges for further research.

Contributors are: Daniela Marcu Istrate, Florin Curta, Horia I. Ciugudean, Aurel Dragotă, Monica-Elena Popescu, Călin Cosma, Tudor Sălăgean, Jan Nicolae, Dan Ioan Mureșan, Alexandru Madgearu, Gábor Thoroczkay, Éva Tóth-Révész, Boris Stojkovski, Șerban Turcuș, Adinel C. Dincă, Mihai Kovács, Nicolae Călin Chifăr, Marius Mihail Păsculescu, and Ana Dumitran.
Volume Editor: Anti Selart
The Baltic Crusades in the thirteenth century led to the creation of the medieval Livonia. But what happened after the conquest? The contributors to this volume analyse the cultural, societal, economic and technological changes in the Baltic Sea region c. 1200–1350. The chapters focus on innovations and long-term developments which were important in integrating the area into medieval European society more broadly, while also questioning the traditional divide of the Livonian post-crusade society into native victims and foreign victors. The process of multilateral negotiations and adaptions created a synthesis which was not necessarily an outcome of the wars but also a manifestation of universal innovation processes in northern Europe.
Contributors are Arvi Haak, Tõnno Jonuks, Kristjan Kaljusaar, Ivar Leimus, Christian Lübke, Madis Maasing, Mihkel Mäesalu, Anti Selart, Vija Stikāne, and Andres Tvauri.


The ruins of a 10th-century Byzantine-style church have been discovered following the archaeological research of 2011, about 24 meters west from the actual Romano-Catholic Cathedral in Alba Iulia. The edification of the church under a Byzantine-style plan may be justified in the context of the Christianization of a Hungarian leader of the southern Transylvanian population. The plan of the ruins, marked by four pillars, leads to the idea of a cross-in-square church, even if the proportions between the structural parts are not respected. Due to some church reconstruction of the early Arpadian period, we argue that according to the information recorded only by the plan, the results could be inaccurate. Therefore, all the presented reconstructions cannot be conclusive because of the reduced amount of information, but can be regarded as a starting point for further researches.

In: Christianization in Early Medieval Transylvania
Author: Florin Curta


Much has been written on the territory to which the prisoners of war taken from Adrianople in 813 were transferred at the order of Krum, a territory that Scriptor incertus calls “Bulgaria beyond the Danube.” Romanian archaeologists have largely followed the suggestion of Maria Comșa, according to whom, much like the stronghold that she had excavated in Slon, finds of water pipe segments on various sites in Wallachia must be associated with “Bulgaria beyond the Danube,”. Curiously, none of the cemeteries excavated in southern Romania has so far been associated with that territory, but there are clear similarities between them and several cemeteries in southern Transylvania. The number of water pipe segments has meanwhile increased and there is clear indication of a 10th-, not 9th-century, as well as of local production (kilns). No evidence exists, however, of any urban or urban-like site in the lands north of the river Danube, where such water pipe segments may have been needed. The closest sites with extensive water supply systems are Pliska and Preslav. Local communities in Wallachia must have produced water pipe segments to meet the demand in the capital(s) of Bulgaria. Communities in southern Transylvania were linked by different ties to Preslav, as indicated by the large number of weapons deposited in 10th-century graves and especially by the church built within that century at Alba Iulia.

In: Christianization in Early Medieval Transylvania
Author: Călin Cosma


Archaeological excavations or fortuitous discoveries on Romania’s territory have revealed several types of reliquary crosses, few in fact, which carry no ornament. The latter could in fact constitute a third group of Byzantine-type enkolpion crosses.

The repertory of reliquary crosses with embossed figures found in Romania, gather by the author without claiming to be exhaustive, amounts to 53 enkolpia. The cataloguing of the pieces and the two-component analyses of the representations on the crosses permits a finer typology of these artifacts. The typology starts from the manner of representation of the details of the effigies or other decorative elements, as well as the existence or their absence on the respective pieces. The creation of the typology is based on the description of the pieces, as presented in the academic papers in which they were published. When the opportunities allowed, graphic representations accompany the description of the pieces. This brings roughly to the same graphic scale some better-preserved examples, making use of the drawings provided by the authors of the discoveries.

In: Christianization in Early Medieval Transylvania