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From ‘Restsprachen’ to Contemporary Endangered Languages
Volume Editors: and
The book deals with the concept of fragmentation as applied to languages and their documentation. It focuses in particular on the theoretical and methodological consequences of such a fragmentation for the linguistic analysis and interpretation of texts and, hence, for the reconstruction of languages. Furthermore, by adopting an innovative perspective, the book aims to test the application of the concept of fragmentation to languages which are not commonly included in the categories of ‘Corpussprache’, ‘Trümmersprache’, and ‘Restsprache’. This is the case with diachronic or diatopic varieties — of even well-known languages — which are only attested through a limited corpus of texts as well as with endangered languages. In this latter case, not only is the documentation fragmented, but the very linguistic competence of the speakers, due to the reduction of contexts of language use, interference phenomena with majority languages, and consequent presence of semi-speakers.
This volume is a major contribution to the study of the life, work and standing of Joseph Brodsky, 1987 Nobel Prize Laureate and the best-known Russian poet of the second half of the twentieth century. This is the most significant book devoted to him in the last 25 years, and features work by many of the leading experts on him, both in Russia and the West. Every one of the chapters makes a real contribution to different aspects of Brodsky – the growth of interest in his work, his world view and political position, and the unique aspects of his poetics. Taken together, the sixteen chapters offer a rounded interpretation of his significance for Russian culture today.
This unique book is the first publication on the art of teaching Persian literature in English, consisting of 18 chapters by prominent early-career, mid-career and established scholars, who generously share their experiences and methodologies in teaching both classical and modern Persian literature across various academic traditions in the world. The volume is divided into three parts: the background to teaching Persian literature: pedagogy, translation and canon, and thematic and topical approaches to the Persian literature class. It includes such topics as the history of teaching Persian literature, the traditional teaching of Persian literature, the political and ideological intentions revealed in the formation of the Persian literature curriculum, the necessity to include marginalized modern Persian literature, such as women’s or diaspora literature, and more applied approaches to curriculum development and teaching.

Contributors
Manizheh Abdollahi, Samad Alavi, Natalia Chalisova, Cameron Cross, Dick Davis, M. R. Ghanoonparvar, Persis Karim, Sooyong Kim, Daniela Meneghini, Jane Mikkelson, Amir Moosavi, Evgeniya Nikitenko, Austin O’Malley, Farideh Pourgiv, Nasrin Rahimieh, Ali-Asghar Seyed-Gohrab, Pouneh Shabani-Jadidi, Farshad Sonboldel, Claudia Yaghoobi, and Mohammad Jafar Yahaghi.

Abstract

In Germanic, the presence of various devices to express ‘agent’ implies that this was a fundamentally important cognitive category. These devices are mainly morphological, and we find various competing agentive word formation patterns. This article provides a corpus-based analysis of the morphological agentive word formation patterns in Old Frisian. These range from suffixal derivation with different suffixes such as Gmc *-(j)an- and the loan suffix Gmc *-ā̆rja-, to compounds with suffixoids such as -mon or -māster. The corpus for the analysis is gathered from the Altfriesische Handwörterbuch by Hofmann and Popkema (2008) and, as such, it offers an insight into the whole corpus of Old Frisian agent nouns.

Open Access
In: Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik

Abstract

Drawing on data from the Old Frisian Riustring manuscripts, modern Frisian dialects, as well as older and more modern Scandinavian dialects and languages, this article argues for two points: first, that Vowel Balance is ultimately a reduction process, and second, that a foot-based analysis can account for Vowel Balance. In Old Frisian, i and u appear after light stems while e and o are found after heavy and polysyllabic stems; in some other languages and dialects, vowels after heavy and polysyllabic stems are reduced supporting an interpretation of e and o as reduced allophonic variants of i and u respectively. Two caveats can be made for arguments in favour of interpreting Vowel Balance as a reduction process, namely the case of trimoraic Vowel Balance in disyllabic words, and the reinterpretation of the contrast between i~e in Old Frisian as a means of marking the prosodic contrast between stem size. These caveats help clarify how prosody can shape stems both in terms of additional manifestations of Vowel Balance, and extending the vowel alternations based on light-heavy stem contrast to words which would not have otherwise undergone Vowel Balance.

In: Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik
Author:

Abstract

This article discusses the meaning of the rarely attested Old Frisian term etheling. Two interpretations have been presented: nobleman, which seems to be the obvious one, versus freeman. After consideration of all attestations extant as well as the previous debate on this question it is inferred that the term etheling represents a nobleman in the older attestations, a freeman in the younger ones. This conclusion has relevance as to the debate on the distinction of social ranks in medieval Frisia.

In: Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik
Author:

Abstract

In the Old West Frisian charters, weak personal names quite often feature the ending -en in both dative and accusative contexts. In this article, it is shown that the data do not indicate that this foreign (Middle Low German or Middle Dutch) case ending is intruding upon the original weak case ending -a in Late Old West Frisian. Therefore, the initial hypothesis is that -en might function as a kind of differential object marker, just like the ending -en with personal names in modern Mainland North Frisian. Since -en is limited to the formal, written language of the charters, however, one is drawn to the conclusion that the ending indeed serves the purpose of object marking, but purely as a notorial convention.

In: Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik
Author:

Abstract

A well-known list of properties, owned by St. Martin’s church in Utrecht, dates from the early tenth century, although it has survived in younger copies. This source contains mainly place-names from the present-day Dutch provinces of North and South Holland and Utrecht. The coastal dialect there still had North Sea Germanic characteristics. Some of these characteristics seem to have been adapted by the Utrecht scribes, who used an Old Dutch dialect, probably because they recognized elements in the names. However, the personal names in the same source were less tampered with, in all likelihood because they are possibly less transparent and hence interesting to the scribes.

In: Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik

Abstract

The Germanic verb hlaþanan , usually glossed ‘to load’, has been wrongly evaluated because of a failure to examine the material in sufficient depth as regards both phonology and semantics. The Old High German evidence indicating a regular Verner’s Law alternation in the paradigm is supplemented not only by the Gothic past participle -hlaþans* with analogical voiceless spirant but also by modern East and North Frisian data. This points to a pre-Germanic proto-form with root-final *-t (Part 1). As emerges from a study of the situation in North Germanic, a core meaning for the Germanic verb appears to have been ‘to lay something down (flat)’, from which development to ‘to stack’ and ‘to load’ is straightforward (Part 2). Potential cognates exist in Balto-Slavic, but the exact formal relationships are unclear (Part 3).

Open Access
In: Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik
Free access
In: Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik