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Global Poverty
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Rethinking Causality
Volume Editors: Raju J. Das and Deepak K. Mishra
Much ink has been spilled on poverty measurements and trends, at the expense of revealing causality. Assembling multi-disciplinary and international contributions, this book shows that a causal understanding of poverty in rich and poor countries is essential. That understanding must be based on a critical interrogation of the wider social relations which set up the mechanisms producing poverty as an outcome. Processes that widen/strengthen crisis-ridden market relations, that increase income/wealth inequality, and that ‘enhance’ the policy-biases of nation-states and international institutions toward the affluent-propertied strata cause global poverty and undermine poor people’s political power. The processes concentrating wealth-creation are poverty-causing processes. Through theoretical and empirical analyses this volume offers important insights and political prescriptions to address global poverty.

Contributors are:Raju J. Das, Deepak K. Mishra, Steven Pressman, Michael Roberts, Jamie Gough, Aram Eisenschitz, Anjan Chakravarty, Mizhar Mikati, Marcelo Milan, Tarique Niazi, John Marangos, Eirini Triarchi, Themis Anthrakidis, Macayla Kisten and Brij Maharaj, David Michael M. San Juan, and Thaddeus Hwong.
The 14th thematic volume of International Development Policy provides perspectives through case studies from the global Souths focusing on the challenges and opportunities of governing migration on the subnational, national, regional and international levels. Bringing together some thirty authors from Africa, Latin America and Asia, the book explores existing and new policies and frameworks in terms of their successes and best practices, and looks at them through the lens of additional challenges, such as those brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, the rise of nationalisms and an increase in xenophobia. The chapters also take the ‘5 Ps’ approach to sustainable development (people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnerships) and assess how migration policies serve sustainable development in a rapidly evolving context.
An Overview of Social Policy in Serbia and Kosovo
Volume Editor: Marzena Żakowska
The book offers a comprehensive overview of social security in the Balkan states. Social security is presented from a broad perspective as a mechanism that addresses human needs, provides protection against social risks, reduces social tensions and secures peace. Various sectors of social policy, pension systems, health care systems, disability insurance, labor policy as well as social risks, such as poverty and unemployment have been analyzed from historical, economic, political, sociological and security perspective. The book also offers recommendations for improving the level of social security in the region.

Contributors are: Dritero Arifi, Ngadhnjim Brovina, Pëllumb Çollaku, Dorota Domalewska, Besnik Fetahu, Remzije Istrefi, Maja Jandrić, Gordana Matković, Ruzhdi Morina, Artan Mustafa, Katarina Stanić, and Marzena Żakowska.
An Overview of Social Policy in the Republics of North Macedonia and Montenegro
Volume Editors: Marzena Żakowska and Dorota Domalewska
The book offers a comprehensive overview of social security in the Balkan states. Social security is presented from a broad perspective as a mechanism that addresses human needs, provides protection against social risks, reduces social tensions and secures peace. Various sectors of social policy, pension systems, health care systems, disability insurance, labor policy as well as social risks, such as poverty and unemployment, have been analyzed from historical, economic, political, sociological and security perspective. The book also offers recommendations for improving the level of social security in the region.

Contributors are: Maja Bacović, Agata Domachowska, Dorota Domalewska, Tomasz Ferfecki, Afet Mamuti, Katerina Mitevska Petrusheva, Natalija Perišić, Kire Sharlamanov, Katerina Veljanovska Blazhevska, and Marzena Żakowska.
Author: Afet Mamuti

Abstract

Before gaining independence, the social security system of the Republic of North Macedonia was based on centralized Yugoslav Federation policies. Only after 1991 were concrete measures taken to establish a functional social security system in order to best meet the needs of its citizens. The Stabilization and Association Agreement between Macedonia and the EU requires that social security be adapted to the new social and economic requirements of society and the level of protection of the health and safety of workers be improved. The main rights of citizens regarding the social security system are ensured by the Constitution. The pension and disability system functions on the basis of the Principles of Solidarity (otherwise referred as the Pay-as-you-go (payg) principle) and the healthcare insurance system is based on compulsory and voluntary insurance. The aim of this chapter is to present theoretical and empirical views of the social security system of the Republic of North Macedonia through the doctrinal approach, with emphasis placed on health, pension and disability insurance, as well as the challenges present in this state. The development of the social security system will depend on demographic change and may only be achieved through reform and adapting to new social circumstances.

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In: Social Security in the Balkans – Volume 2
Author: Maja Baćović

Abstract

The pension system in Montenegro, although multi-pillar by law, is largely based on a mandatory public pay-as-you-go system that is operated by Montenegro’s public pension fund and is subsidized by the Government. Since the two reforms in 2003 and 2010, the financial sustainability of the pension fund has been improved, but it still has not achieved its full capacity. Despite growing employment and efforts to reduce the informal economy, the ratio of workers to retirees has only moderately decreased since 2006 due to the aging population. This chapter aims to present recent developments in the Montenegrin pension system and to analyze the sustainability of the system in the future, bearing in mind the continued aging of the population, the mounting public debt and the high fiscal burdens that discourage investment. The framework of the study is based on two key characteristics of the Montenegrin pension system: the unsatisfactory ratio of workers to retirees and the insufficient pension funds and disability insurance. The study employs quantitative methods, and population projections were created by applying the cohort component method. The pension fund’s forecasted expenditures and revenues were estimated by applying the arithmetic approach. Two forecasting scenarios, the aging population and wage growth are presented. The results show that the financial sustainability of the pension system in its current form may be improved by 2056, but it cannot be achieved in full. Although two comprehensive reform packages were implemented to increase the retirement age, introduce a points system in pension calculation, and change the pension adjustment formula, further reforms are recommended. To provide a pension system that is more sustainable from both a fiscal and a social perspective, further reforms may be directed at prolonging labour market participation by strengthening the early retirement policy and revising the early retirement scheme.

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In: Social Security in the Balkans – Volume 2

Abstract

Poverty remains one of the most serious social issues, especially when it afflicts a significant portion of the population over an extended period of time. It has serious consequences both for people living in poverty and for the community where those individuals live. Hence, every society seeks to reduce the number of people that live in poverty through its social policy and the established system of social security. This chapter aims to show the poverty rate in the Republic of North Macedonia, its structure and amplitudes over time, the reasons that cause it, and the measures taken to reduce it. To achieve this objective, secondary analysis of data was carried out, in particular analysis of data obtained from the government agencies that coordinate poverty reduction programs and social policy institutions in the Republic of North Macedonia. The research results indicate that the poverty rate in the Republic of North Macedonia over a long period of time has increased compared to most countries in the region. Although poverty has been reduced over the last few years, it remains at a high level compared to other countries.

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In: Social Security in the Balkans – Volume 2

Abstract

The period of transition after 1989 did not introduce radical transformations to the Montenegrin health care system. Gradual reforms started as late as in 2004 and have resulted in the sustained dominance of the public health care system over the private sector. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the effects of the public health care sector reforms after 1989 in Montenegro regarding access to and the quality and sustainability of health care services. The study is based on qualitative analysis and assessment of the provision of health care by various sectors, with an emphasis on the public sector. The chapter starts with alternative roles of the state concerning health care – as a regulator, funder/purchaser and provider/planner, and takes them into consideration further within the Montenegrin context. The research shows the mixed results of health care reform. While coverage of the population by health care services is high, there are certain gaps. There is a failure to maintain high quality, and the funding mechanisms are not sufficient for a sustainable health care system. The progress of the Montenegrin health care reforms, therefore, seems moderate.

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In: Social Security in the Balkans – Volume 2