Browse results

Contribution to a Dialectical Anthropology
Author:
Translator:
In view of the new forays from biology into the Humanities, this book aims not only to demonstrate the inconsistencies of the theory of evolution in addressing cultural dynamics, but also to offer an alternative that begins from a resumption of the dialogue between anthropology and historical materialism in which dialectics reintroduces itself to anthropology from different premises and the role of symbolic language within materialism is reevaluated.
In: The Excluded Third
In: The Excluded Third
In: The Excluded Third
In: The Excluded Third
Free access
In: International Journal of Wood Culture

Abstract

Replicating ancient musical instruments is a method to protect fragile originals from extensive playing. In the case of stringed instruments, replicas are generally realized by luthiers using identical wood species and geometry, according to dimensional surveys. Although this procedure yields a highly similar visual aspect, the intrinsic variability of wood properties does not ensure an identical sound. Therefore, acoustic surveys are a fundamental step in reproducing the sounds of original instruments. In this work, we report the acoustical survey of a late baroque mandolin preserved at Museo degli Strumenti Musicali del Castello Sforzesco di Milano. The survey was conducted using portable equipment and included measurements of the radiated sound spectrum, admittance, monopole mobility, and mode shape assignment. Finite Element Analyses (FEA) enabled the assignment of mode shapes and quantification of the effect of a crack on the structural integrity and acoustics of the instrument. This study has laid the foundation for the creation of a replica that, beyond the visual aspect, would resemble the original instrument in terms of sound to the extent feasible.

Open Access
In: International Journal of Wood Culture

Abstract

Timber has regained popularity in construction in recent years due to its ecological benefits. The connection methods used in this study play a vital role in the sustainability of structures and materials. Monomaterial timber connections are sustainable alternatives to metal fasteners and adhesives commonly used in construction. Wood is an anisotropic material with dimensional changes resulting from changes in atmospheric conditions. Understanding and accounting for this property are crucial for the longevity and functionality of wooden structures. The cumulative knowledge of wood´s material characteristics and its use in design, construction, and human culture can be defined as wood culture developed through artists’ and craftsmen’s experiences, science, and industry. The development of various techniques by artisans to leverage the dimensional change in wood to join timber elements is a major contribution to wood culture. In contrast, until now, the timber industry has mainly focused on limiting or controlling these changes in standardized production and has neglected their use for joining timber elements. However, technological advances have changed dramatically. The digital manufacturing and analysis of wood structures have the potential to guide machine tools and may allow the integration of dimensional changes, especially in the design and construction of timber joints. This study explores the state-of-the-art utilization of dimensional changes in timber to join elements in craft, material science, and industrial production. The potential of techniques utilizing this behavior for innovation in modern design and construction and their implications for wood culture were examined. Research gaps and avenues for further research are identified.

Open Access
In: International Journal of Wood Culture

Abstract

Along the coast of northwestern Alaska, architectural wood remains are well preserved in the Birnirk and Thule coastal sites of the early 2nd millennium CE. These structural wood elements are unique archives for documenting climatic variations and cultural transformations during this key development period of Inuit culture. Along this treeless Arctic coast, driftwood accumulates from the subarctic forests of interior Alaska. Except for northwestern Alaska, regional tree-ring chronologies are too short (at best 350–400 years) to successfully date archaeological wood remains from Birnirk and Thule coastal sites using conventional dendrochronology. This paper examines the potential of tree-ring derived δ 18O signal to annually date eight architectural wood samples from the Rising Whale (KTZ-304) site at Cape Espenberg, northwestern Alaska. We developed a δ 18O master chronology, covering the period 935–1157 CE, using five wood samples from the KTZ-304 site. Blind isotope cross-dating of individual series belonging to this δ 18O master chronology (one against the other four) showed conclusive dating and a very strong coherence of the isotopic signal. We, then, used the δ 18O master chronology to cross-date three other wood samples for which we knew, from previous 14C wiggle-matching procedure, the first measured ring to be in this time interval, within a ± 18 to 30-year precision. Oxygen isotope dendrochronology provided a plausible date for one of the samples (the first measured ring at 1073 CE). This preliminary study encourages us to acquire additional data to extend in time and strengthen the δ 18O master chronology of northwestern Alaska (NWAK 18O) and help refine our understanding of climate and culture change during the 2nd millennium CE.

Open Access
In: International Journal of Wood Culture
Free access
In: KronoScope