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Author: Sarah Czerny
How does milk become cow milk, donkey milk or human milk? When one closely explores this question, the species differences between milks is not as stable as one might initially assume, even if one takes an embodied perspective. To show this, this book takes readers through an ethnographic comparison of milk consumption and production in Croatia in a range of different social settings: on farms, in mother-infant breastfeeding relations, in food hygiene documentation and in the local landscape. In doing so, it argues that humans actually invest considerable work into abstracting and negotiating milks into their human and animal forms.
In this book, we reclaim the term “resistance” by exploring how animals can “resist” their commodification through blocking and allowing human intervention in their lives. In the cases explored in this volume, animals lead humans to rethink their relationship to animals by either blocking and/or allowing human commodification. In some cases, this results in greater control exercised on the animals, while in others, animals’ resistance also poses a series of complex moral questions to human commodifiers, sometimes to the point of transforming humans into active members of resistance movements on behalf of animals.
Authors: Amnonn Hahn and Reuven Yosef

Abstract

Following extensive renovation of urban areas of central Israel, and in the framework of a research project of supplying nest-boxes for urban breeding birds, especially Common Swifts Apus apus, we documented interspecific nest destruction by House Sparrows Passer domesticus. In two separate incidents the House Sparrows entered the nest chamber of the swifts and removed the eggs by puncturing them. In one, the incident occurred early enough in the breeding season and allowed the Common Swift pair to renest and successfully fledge two young.

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution

Abstract

The Haynei is one of seven species aggregates (clusters of species having similar flower morphology) recognized in section Oncocyclus of genus Iris. This aggregate, characterized by dark-colored flowers, is represented by six species in Israel and adjacent Jordan. There is, however, no knowledge of the genetic relationship of these species making verification of their taxonomic status impossible. We investigated genetic variation in this group using analysis of whole chloroplast genomes and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). We also used species distribution modeling (SDM) to predict species ranges under current climatic conditions. We found some population groups within the currently recognized species of section Oncocyclus to represent dramatically different genetic entities which devaluates a general trend of merging many previously recognized species of section Oncocyclus based on their flower morphology. Despite the importance of homoploid hybridization in this group’s evolution and some apparently sporadically happening inter-specific gene flow, the main evolutionary forces in Oncocyclus appear to be vicariance and spatial isolation. Our findings suggest that some of the currently recognized species in section Oncocyclus need revision. A revision must be based on genetic analyses allowing the reconstruction of ancestry and recognition of the importance of vicariance and spatial isolation in the evolution of this group. The implications of the present findings for conservation are discussed.

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution

Abstract

Quality seedlings are vital to the success of any reforestation project. This can be attained and improved by employing nursery management practices like root pruning. This study was carried out to determine the effect of root pruning on root growth potential and growth of kamagong seedlings. Three-month-old seedlings were obtained from the Learning Laboratory for Forestry and Agroforestry, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines – Los Baños, where treatments non-root pruned and root pruned were applied to seedlings repotted in larger polybags. After 80 days, root pruning did not significantly affect height and root collar diameter growth. Shoot dry mass, root collar diameter, root length, total tree dry mass, sturdiness quotient, seedling mortality were consistent in between treatments. Non-root pruned seedlings yielded significantly higher root volume and root dry mass while root pruned seedlings have significantly higher shoot height, root: shoot ratio, and seedling quality index. Attainment of moderate Root Growth Potential (RGP) based on root length and root volume was influenced by root pruning. Expressions of RGP were positively and significantly correlated to root dry mass, sturdiness quotient and seedling quality index. In conclusion, root pruning of this critically endangered species increases its quality as planting stock.

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution

Abstract

This study was conducted to explore bird species diversity and conservation challenges in Lake Arekit located in the Guraghe Zone of Ethiopia. Point counts along the shoreline of the lake were employed to identify and record birds. Potential threats to the lake were identified through field observation and via key informant interviews. A total number of 56 bird species belonging to 23 families, and 11 orders were observed. One species, the Blue winged Goose (Cyanochen cyanoptera) was endemic, three species were near-endemic, and five species were vulnerable in their conservation status. A significantly higher number of species (i.e., 47) was recorded in the dry season than in the wet season (i.e., 24). The relative abundance of birds was also significantly higher during the dry season (t = 2.23, P > 0.05). The study also showed that Lake Arekit is under severe threats including urbanization with unwise waste disposals, siltation, and intensive agricultural expansion. Therefore, urgent stakeholder actions are required to save this lake and thereby the vast array of its biodiversity particularly the birds.

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution

Abstract

In 2005, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America’s (ELCA) Churchwide Assembly authorized the formation of a task force to prepare a social statement on genetics and faith. Although the Churchwide Assembly voted to adopt the social statement in August of 2011 by a wide margin, there had been an earlier controversy. In June 2010, an article in the Dakota Farmer questioned whether the ELCA was accusing farmers of “sin” for planting genetically engineered crop seeds. At least two churches in rural North Dakota cited this factor as a reason for leaving the ELCA. Seven synods with strong farmer constituencies proposed resolutions challenging the social statement. This paper explores how the opposition used agrarianism and libertarianism to attack the ELCA’s use of the Christian concept of the common good in the social statement. This case reveals the challenges that the Church faces when contributing to ethical deliberations on controversial issues.

In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology

Abstract

A new pseudoscorpion species, Dactylochelifer zaragozai n. sp., belonging to the family Cheliferidae Risso, 1827 is described from Republic Adygeya, Russia (North Caucasus) and its diagnostic characters are illustrated. The specimens were extracted from litter collected from oak-hornbeam hazel forest.

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution
Author: Ittai Warburg

Abstract

Messor arenarius (Fabricius) is a harvester ant species, which is mainly distributed in deserts of the Middle East and North Africa. Ants of this species dig their nests in loess or sandy soils. In Israel, this ants’ species is distributed in the Negev Desert and in sandy soils along the Mediterranean Coastal Plain. In this work, 12 sites of natural habitats in the Northern Coastal Plain of Israel were surveyed for surface activity of M. arenarius ants. These ants were found in 3 out of these 12 natural habitats. Two of these sites where M. arenarius ants were found were subjected to disturbance, caused by development works during the period of this survey. It is concluded, that the populations of M. arenarius in the Northern Mediterranean Coastal Plain of Israel are endangered. It is also concluded, that the presence of either Artemisia monosperma or Retama raetam bushes in certain habitats in the Northern Coastal Plain of Israel, are not necessary or sufficient conditions for presence of M. arenarius in these same habitats.

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution

Abstract

The combined effects of two temperatures (20° and 25°C) and food densities (1 × 104 and 1 × 106 cells/mL) of three microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis oculata and Scenedesmus obliquus on the life history of Euchlanis dilatata were evaluated. Our work integrated: effects of temperature on the activation energy (Ea), and evaluation of the rate of decrease or increase through the temperature coefficient (Q10) in the different biological processes of the life table of E. dilatata, including, morphometric values and hatching egg percentages. The best conditions to reach the highest instantaneous growth rate (r) in E. dilatata were 25°C fed with N. oculata (1 × 106 cells/mL) while the lowest r value was registered with C. vulgaris with both temperatures. In the mean generation time and age at first reproduction, the Ea was higher at 20°C, where Q10 values < 1 indicate that these rates decrease with increasing the temperature. We found an exception to the temperature-size rule when rotifer was fed C. vulgaris at 25°C. Moreover, the rotifer fed with S. obliquus reached the maximum size. Our hypothesis is that when temperature increase 5°C, the rotifer may shorten its embryonic development, thereby increasing r and net reproduction rate.

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution