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This is a ground-breaking philosophical-historical study of the work of Galen of Pergamum. It contains four case-studies on (1) Galen’s remarkable and original thoughts on the relation between body and soul, (2) his notion of human nature, (3) his engagement with Plato’s Timaeus, (4) and black bile and melancholy. It shows that Galen develops an innovative view of human nature that problematizes the distinction between body and soul.
Moralpsychologie und Chortanz in den Nomoi
Weshalb ist der Chortanz (χορεία) in Platons Nomoi so prominent? Zur Beantwortung dieser Frage bietet dieses Buch eine eingehende Analyse der Moralpsychologie des Dialogs und argumentiert, dass der Tanz nicht nur ein erzieherisches Instrument, sondern – als körperlicher Ausdruck geordneter Lust – auch ein Symbolbild für das Hauptziel der moralischen Erziehung ist: die Mäßigung (σωφροσύνη). So wird der Chortanz zu einem wirkmächtigen Konstrukt zur Veranschaulich der philosophischen Hauptanliegen Platons. Zu den Schwerpunkten des Buches gehören darüber hinaus eine innovative Erklärung des komplexen Aufbaus des Dialogs, neue Deutungen des Marionettengleichnisses und der Ansprache an die Tragiker sowie die erste Untersuchung der moralischen Funktion der Scham in Kapitellänge.

Why is choral dance (χορεία) so prominent in Plato’s Laws? In answer to this question, this book offers an in-depth analysis of the dialogue’s moral psychology, arguing that dance is not only an educational instrument but also, in terms of the physical expression of ordered pleasure, a symbolic image of the principal goal of moral education: moderation (σωφροσύνη). Thus, choral dance becomes a powerful construct to illustrate Plato’s main philosophical concerns. Other key features of the book include an innovative account of the dialogue’s complex composition, new interpretations of the puppet image and the tragedy claim, and the first chapter-length investigation of the moral funtion of shame.
Volume Editors: Alyssa DeBlasio and Victoria Juharyan
This volume explores the influence of the Socratic legacy in the Russian, East European, and Soviet contexts. For writers, philosophers, and artists, Socrates has served as a potent symbol—of the human capacity for philosophical reflection, as well as the tumultuous (and often dangerous) reality in which Russian-speaking and Soviet intellectuals found themselves. The thirteen chapters include surveys of historical periods and movements (the 18th century, Nietzscheanism, and the “Greek Renaissance” of Russian culture), studies of individual writers and philosophers (Skovoroda, Herzen, Dostoevsky, Rozanov, Bely, Narbut, and many others), and investigations of Socratic subtexts (e.g., in Bulgakov’s Master and Margarita and Nosov’s Neznaika series for children). The volume concludes with a “Socratic Texts” section of new translations. The plurality of these topics demonstrates the continued relevance of the Socratic myth not only for Russian-speaking culture, but for the world.
Volume Editors: Jana Schultz and James Wilberding
Sosipatra, Hypatia, Macrina: some of the most famous female philosophers of antiquity were connected to Neoplatonism. But what does it mean to be a woman philosopher in late antiquity? How is the inclusive nature of the Neoplatonic schools connected to their ethical, political, and metaphysical ideas? What role does the religious dimension of late Neoplatonism and the role of women as priestesses play in understanding Neoplatonic women philosophers?
This book offers thirteen essays that examine women and the female in Neoplatonism from a variety of perspectives, paying particular attention to the interactions between the metaphysics, psychology, and ethics.
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In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis

Abstract

The paper provides a reconstruction of proof by contradiction in Kant’s pure general logic. A seemingly less-explored point of view on this topic is how apagogical proof can account for the formal truth of a judgement. Integrating the argument held by Kjosavik (2019), I intend to highlight how one can use proof by contradiction, conceived as a modus tollens, to establish the logical actuality (logical or formal truth) of a cognition. Although one might agree on the capacity of the proof to prove formal falsity, the logical actuality of a judgement is assessable based on a logically grounded judgement and, as for transcendental logic, this cognitive operation has to presuppose the real possibility of an object.

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis
In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis
Der Ausdruck „die goldene Mitte finden“ ist bekannt – aber wissen Sie auch, wer die Idee wesentlich geprägt hat? Kleiner Tipp: Es war der vielleicht wichtigste Philosoph der Antike. Aristoteles schuf mit seinen Ausführungen zur Angemessenheit gewissermaßen eine Leitlinie für’s Glücklichsein. Er plädierte dafür, sich stets zwischen einem „zu viel“ und einem „zu wenig“ zu bewegen. Sein Leitfaden zu einem glücklichen Leben war jedoch nur ein Aspekt eines schier unerschöpflichen philosophischen Werkes. Darüber hinaus verfasste Aristoteles eine Fülle an Schriften zur Logik, Metaphysik, politischen Philosophie und nicht zuletzt zur Zoologie. Der neue Comic aus der Reihe „Philosophische Einstiege“ macht den griechischen Philosophen auch für Anfänger:innen sehr gut verständlich und besticht dabei mit zahlreichen Illustrationen, die für Anschaulichkeit und Spaß am eigenen Philosophieren sorgen. So gelingt eine unkomplizierte Einführung in die wichtigsten Aristotelischen Werke und Gedanken.
Author: Simon Dierig

Abstract

In this essay, I discuss three readings of Descartes’ Meditations. According to the first reading, “I exist” is for Descartes the foundation of our knowledge. This reading is dismissed on the grounds that, in his view, as long as God’s existence is not proven there is a good reason to doubt this proposition. Proponents of the second reading claim that there are two kinds of Cartesian knowledge: perfect and imperfect knowledge. The meditator has imperfect knowledge of “I exist” before God’s existence is proven. Subsequently, she acquires perfect knowledge of various metaphysical theorems. This reading is repudiated, too. I argue for a third reading, according to which “I think” – and not “I exist” – is the foundation of our knowledge.

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis
Rawls and Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas
John Rawls is the most influential 20th century political philosopher, but critics have complained about the ahistorical character of his approach. The purpose of this book is to argue that these critics are, at best, only half correct.Pre-Liberal Political Philosophy concentrates on four pre-liberal thinkers who are major figures in the history of philosophy and who are surprisingly formative in the development of Rawls’s mature political philosophy: Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas.
Several illuminating connections are drawn between Rawls’s political liberalism and Plato’s contrasting appeal to the “noble lie” in politics, between Rawls’s overall method of reflective equilibrium and Aristotle’s dialectic, between Rawls’s opposition to merit in the distribution of wealth and Augustine’s similar anti-Pelagian stance, and between Rawls’s view of a just society as a common good of common goods and the natural law dimension of Aquinas’s philosophy. In general, the distance between Rawlsian abstraction and his historical embeddedness is lessened considerably.