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Lawāmiʿ al-Naẓar fī Taḥqīq Maʿānī al-Mukhtaṣar is Aḥmad b. Yaʿqūb al-Wallālī's (d. 1128/1716) commentary on al-Sanūsī's (d. 895/1490) compendium of logic, al-Mukhtaṣar. Al-Wallālī was the first commentator on al-Sanūsī's compendium after the author's autocommentary. In this publication, Ibrahim Safri offers a critical edition of this work, together with a study of the author's life and oeuvre.
Safri also tries to show the indirect influence of Avicennism on logic in the Maghribī tradition in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. On the basis of his writings on logic and philosophical theology, al-Wallālī was considered a master of rational sciences by his contemporaries.
In: Commentary on the Jumal on Logic by Khūnajī
In: Commentary on the Jumal on Logic by Khūnajī
Studien zur ideologischen Ambivalenz der ›deutschen‹ Mystik
Volume Editors: Maxime Mauriège and Martina Roesner
Wohl kein mittelalterlicher Autor hat im Laufe der Jahrhunderte eine größere Faszination auf seine Leser ausgeübt als Meister Eckhart. Die besondere Universalität und Weite seines mystisch-theologischen Denkens hat ihn jedoch auch immer wieder zur Projektionsfläche für ideologisch motivierte Interpretationen aller Art gemacht. Der vorliegende Band beleuchtet die Rezeption, die Eckharts Mystik in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus erfahren hat. Im Mittelpunkt stehen dabei die verschiedenen und teilweise widersprüchlichen Versuche, Eckhart zum Begründer eines „germanischen Christentums“ bzw. eines „deutschen Glaubens“ zu stilisieren und ihn in polemischer Weise gegen das Judentum, aber auch gegen die Katholische Kirche in Stellung zu bringen.

Meister Eckhart is undoubtedly one of the most fascinating medieval authors, who has appealed to a wide audience across the centuries. At the same time, the extraordinary universality and openness of his mystical-theological approach has repeatedly made him the object of all kinds of ideological projections and misinterpretations. The present volume examines the reception of Eckhart’s mysticism in the era of National Socialism. The main focus is put on the different and sometimes contradictory attempts to present Eckhart as the founder of “Germanic Christianity” or “German faith” and as a visceral opponent of both Judaism and the Catholic Church.
The monograph offers an in-depth, source-oriented presentation and analysis of the complex discussions that took place between ca. 1230 and 1350 on the differentiation and expansion of the structural concept of scientific knowledge and certainty in lifeworld-contingent areas of investigation. It makes transparent a development in the course of which a graduated, multidimensional conception of knowledge and certainty emerges. In the process, the masters gain pioneering insights into the philosophy of science. Starting from the key data provided by Aristotle, the scholastic scholars' productive, far-reaching further thinking leads to a deeper understanding of the nature and reliability of scientifically acquired knowledge. These intellectual endeavours were significantly challenged by the increasing knowledge of the spectrum of the transmitted Aristotelian and Arabic sciences. They also received significant impulses from epistemological reflection in theology.
Author: Ari Ackerman
This work focuses on the conception of God of the medieval Jewish philosopher and legal scholar, Hasdai Crescas (1340-1410/11). It demonstrates that Crescas’ God is infinitely creative and good and explores the parallel that Crescas implicitly draws between God as creator and legislator, which is rooted in his understanding of the Deity as continuously involved in generative activity through the outpouring of goodness and love as manifest by multiple, simultaneous and successive worlds and a perpetually expanding Torah. It also reviews the Maimonidean background for Crescas’ position and suggests that Crescas is countering Maimonides’ stance that creation is limited to a single moment and Maimonides’ notion of the Torah as perfect and immutable.
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In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis

Abstract

The paper provides a reconstruction of proof by contradiction in Kant’s pure general logic. A seemingly less-explored point of view on this topic is how apagogical proof can account for the formal truth of a judgement. Integrating the argument held by Kjosavik (2019), I intend to highlight how one can use proof by contradiction, conceived as a modus tollens, to establish the logical actuality (logical or formal truth) of a cognition. Although one might agree on the capacity of the proof to prove formal falsity, the logical actuality of a judgement is assessable based on a logically grounded judgement and, as for transcendental logic, this cognitive operation has to presuppose the real possibility of an object.

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis
In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis
Author: Simon Dierig

Abstract

In this essay, I discuss three readings of Descartes’ Meditations. According to the first reading, “I exist” is for Descartes the foundation of our knowledge. This reading is dismissed on the grounds that, in his view, as long as God’s existence is not proven there is a good reason to doubt this proposition. Proponents of the second reading claim that there are two kinds of Cartesian knowledge: perfect and imperfect knowledge. The meditator has imperfect knowledge of “I exist” before God’s existence is proven. Subsequently, she acquires perfect knowledge of various metaphysical theorems. This reading is repudiated, too. I argue for a third reading, according to which “I think” – and not “I exist” – is the foundation of our knowledge.

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis