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Author: Dirk Hartmann
Während sich Band III der erkenntnistheoretischen Reflexion und Rekonstruktion der „unbelebten“ Naturwissenschaften Physik und Chemie widmete, stehen in Band IV die Biowissenschaften im Fokus, die mit dem Leben Dasjenige zu ihrem Forschungsgegenstand machen, was (notwendigerweise) zwischen Physis und Psyche vermittelt.
Typisch philosophische Fragen in diesem Zusammenhang sind u.a.: Was ist „Leben“ im für die Biowissenschaften relevanten Sinn des Ausdrucks? Woher wissen wir, dass es Leben nicht „immer schon“ gegeben hat, sondern dass es im Zuge einer Abiogenese aus der unbelebten Natur heraus entstanden sein muss? Was ermöglicht uns insbesondere, konkretes Wissen über die Naturgeschichte des Menschen zu erwerben und wie verhält sich in diesem Zusammenhang dann der spezifisch biologische Gattungsbegriff „Homo“ zum allgemeineren Begriff des Menschen als eines Vernunft- und Kulturwesens? In diesem Kontext wird auch der Begriff der „Rasse“ und die in jüngerer Zeit aufgeworfene These, dass die praktische Philosophie Kants durch seine „Rassenlehre“ implizit rassistisch sei, untersucht. Schließlich werden die methodischen Grundlagen der Neurowissenschaften und ihre Grenzen als Beitrag zur Philosophie des Geistes untersucht, die als solche in Band VI zu Wort kommen wird.
This book of original papers offers some fresh approaches to skepticism–a topic in philosophy with a noble two-millennia history; and one that even inaugurated modern philosophy in Descartes’s Meditations. Particularly with the rise of scientific forms or models of philosophy, skepticism today is often treated as a dead-end not worthy of serious reflection. In contrast to this prevailing attitude, the skepticisms discussed in these pages are alive. Here are assembled leading thinkers who claim at least some forms of skepticism to be true (e.g. skepticism about ethics or metaphysics) or insightful enough to be a lasting source of philosophical enlightenment and inspiration.
Spanish Jesuits such as Francisco Suárez (1548-1617), José de Acosta (1540-1600), Pedro de Ribadeneira (1526-1611) and Juan de Mariana (1536-1624) had a powerful impact on English thinkers of the magnitude of John Locke (1632-1704), Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Robert Persons (1546-1610), Algernon Sidney (1623-1683), and later, William Robertson (1721-1793), Thomas de Quincey (1785-1859) and Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953). An influence that was sometimes hidden and always controversial.
This work highlights the importance of this influence regarding thought on politics, law and natural rights. A constitutionalist understanding of political power, the recognition and promotion of innate rights and the necessary subjection of rulers to the law, all form part of the important legacy of these scholastic doctors for European intellectual heritage.

Contributors include: Rafael Alé Ruiz, Francisco T. Baciero Ruiz, Francisco Castilla Urbano, José Luis Cendejas Bueno, Alfonso Díaz Vera, Francisco Javier Gómez Díez, Cecilia Font de Villanueva, León M. Gómez Rivas, Fermín del Pino Díaz, Leopoldo J. Prieto López, Daniel Schwartz, Lorena Velasco Guerrero, and María Idoya Zorroza Huarte.
Richard Kilvington (ca. 1302–1361) was one of the most original and influential thinkers among the Oxford Calculators. His impact on late medieval philosophy and theology remains unquestionable. His physical, logical, and ethical solutions were extensively debated and referred to, paving the way for new approaches in philosophy and theology.
This volume presents a critical edition of question 4 from Kilvington’s Quaestiones super libros Sententiarum, complete with an introduction to the edition and a guide to Kilvington’s theological concepts.
Synthesizing Generalized Evolution Theory
Author: Karim Baraghith
Do social systems evolve similarly to biological ones and societies similarly to organisms? For some time now, an interdisciplinary paradigm has been developing in this regard: the Generalized Evolution Theory. After pointing out differences between biological and cultural evolution, as well as different inheritance strategies, the book proposes a philosophy of science classification of the different approaches in this vast and ever-growing field of research. It leads from generalized microevolution to generalized macroevolution and to their synthesis. As evolution favors groups with high internal cohesion, it will also favor strategies and reward agents responsible for this cohesion. In the long run, generalized evolution selects those populations that exhibit a higher density of interaction.
The monograph offers an in-depth, source-oriented presentation and analysis of the complex discussions that took place between ca. 1230 and 1350 on the differentiation and expansion of the structural concept of scientific knowledge and certainty in lifeworld-contingent areas of investigation. It makes transparent a development in the course of which a graduated, multidimensional conception of knowledge and certainty emerges. In the process, the masters gain pioneering insights into the philosophy of science. Starting from the key data provided by Aristotle, the scholastic scholars' productive, far-reaching further thinking leads to a deeper understanding of the nature and reliability of scientifically acquired knowledge. These intellectual endeavours were significantly challenged by the increasing knowledge of the spectrum of the transmitted Aristotelian and Arabic sciences. They also received significant impulses from epistemological reflection in theology.
Perspektiven der Wissenschaftsforschung
Dieser Band analysiert erstmals systematisch und interdisziplinär Geschichte, Formen, Funktionen und Auswirkungen des Scheiterns im Kontext der Wissenschaften.
Das Scheitern ist in seinen unterschiedlichen Erscheinungsformen ein ständiger Begleiter der wissenschaftlichen Praxis. Theorien, Hypothesen oder Experimente einzelner Forscher:innen und Forschergruppen scheitern – vorläufig oder endgültig, partiell oder vollständig. Für ein adäquates Verständnis des wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisprozesses ist es daher unabdingbar, sich mit den Formen, Funktionen, Mechanismen und Auswirkungen des Scheiterns zu befassen, was bis dato allerdings kaum geschieht – weder innerhalb der wissenschaftlichen Gemeinschaft noch in der öffentlichen Debatte. Durch diese „Vernachlässigung des Scheiterns“ in den Wissenschaften bleiben auch dessen mitunter produktive Effekte zumeist unerwähnt. Über Versuch und Irrtum führen die „Irrwege“ des Erkenntnisprozesses häufig zu Erfolgen und Lösungen.
Der Band schließt diese Forschungslücke und verbindet dabei Perspektiven aus vielen Bereichen der Wissenschaftsforschung und aus der Wissenschaftspraxis.
In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research
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In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research
The Impact, Spread and Decline of the Calculatores Tradition
Volume Editors: Daniel A. Di Liscia and Edith D. Sylla
Aristotelian philosophy is generally regarded as incompatible with the mathematical methods and principles that form the basis of modern science. This book offers an entirely new perspective on this presumed incompatibility. It surveys the tradition of the Oxford Calculators from its beginnings in the fourteenth century until Leibniz and the philosophy of the seventeenth century and explores how the Calculators' techniques of quantification expanded the conceptual and methodological limits of Aristotelianism. In the process, it examines a large number of authors, some of them never studied in this context. Exploring the relationship between various late medieval disciplines, the book sheds new light on the problem of continuity vs. discontinuity between scholasticism and modern science. Beyond its historiographical purpose, this book also hopes to be a source of inspiration for present-day philosophers of science.