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‘Let me give you a simple example of what I mean, and you will see the rest for yourself.’ This is how Plato usually introduces mathematical examples to illustrate important philosophical puzzles. The research presented in this book offers a systematic analysis of these examples and demonstrates their crucial psychagogical function. Providing a toolkit of paradoxical objects that challenge the soul and summon thought, mathematical examples do not convey demonstrative rigor or exact calculations, but instead induce psychic states of aporia and wonder. The gaze of Plato’s mathematicians is directed both downwards and upwards: precisely for this reason mathematics have the power to awaken the soul and to lead it towards the Forms.

«Prendi un piccolo esempio, e saprai tutto quello che voglio dire». Così Platone introduce esempi matematici funzionali a illustrare snodi filosofici particolarmente problematici. Questo studio fornisce un’analisi sistematica di tali esempi e ne mostra la cruciale funzione psicagogica. Come un toolkit di oggetti paradossali che confondono l’anima e mettono in moto il pensiero, le matematiche degli esempi non veicolano rigore dimostrativo e calcoli esatti, ma inducono stati psichici di aporia e meraviglia. Proprio in virtù del loro sguardo biforcuto, rivolto non solo verso l’alto ma anche verso il basso, le matematiche hanno il potere di risvegliare l’anima e di trainarla verso le Idee.
Überindividuelle Phänomene menschlicher Lebenswelten
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Der Band fragt nach geistigen Phänomenen, die von überindividueller Art sind oder sich in Hervorbringungen menschlichen Handelns manifestieren. Auf je verschiedene Weise thematisieren die Autor:innen, wie ein so verstandener objektiver Geist zu denken ist. Im Anschluss an klassische Autoren wie Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Georg Simmel oder Nicolai Hartmann sowie in Bezug auf aktuelle Debatten der „philosophy of mind“ und Sozialphilosophie wird erläutert, dass objektiv Geistiges in einem nicht-metaphysischen Sinn verstanden werden kann. In Auseinandersetzung mit Vorstellungen wie „institutional reality“ (John Searle) oder „mental commons“ (Annette Baier) sollen streng individualistische Konzeptionen des Geistes korrigiert werden. Behandelt werden Fragen zu Hegels Begriff des objektiven Geistes, zur Kulturphilosophie, zur Sozialtheorie, zur analytischen Sozialontologie und zur Philosophie der Kognition.
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Hegel hatte den Gegenstand der Psychologie als „subjektiven Geist“ und den Gegenstand der Geisteswissenschaften als „objektiven Geist“ bezeichnet. Dieser Unterscheidung entsprechend ist das übergreifende Thema von Band V die begriffliche Analyse des Psychisch-Geistigen in Gestalt einer speziellen Wissenschaftstheorie der Psychologie (§25) und einer allgemeinen Wissenschaftstheorie der Geisteswissenschaften (§26). Das für die Psychologie spezifische wissenschaftstheoretische Problem ist die Frage: „Wie ist eine objektive empirische Wissenschaft vom Subjektiven möglich?“ Um hierauf eine Antwort geben zu können, werden grundlegende Termini der Allgemeinen Psychologie, wie Lernen, Wahrnehmung, Intelligenz und Emotion, rekonstruiert – auch im Hinblick auf die derzeit neuesten Entwicklungen der KI-Forschung. Naturwissenschaften stützen technische Praxen, während Geisteswissenschaften die soziopolitische Praxis der Konfliktbewältigung sowie die kulturreflexive Selbstvergewisserung des Menschen theoretisch fundieren. Diese Unterscheidung ist Ausgangspunkt für eine allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie der Geisteswissenschaften. Zu den hier behandelten Fragen gehören unter anderem: „Was ist eine Erklärung historischen Geschehens?“, „Wie lässt sich Literaturkritik wissenschaftlich betreiben?“ und „Was ist Kunst?“.
Free access
In: International Journal of Jungian Studies

Abstract

In this article, we aim to provide a summary of the development of modern psychological astrology over the past century in terms of its esoteric and scientific historical antecedents, highlighting the contributions of the Theosophists on the one hand and C.G. Jung on the other, while discussing not only the complex interrelationships between the two but also other important authors and relevant historical aspects. By tracing the links between psychology and Western esotericism we also try to illustrate that, although being apparently two very separate fields, they are connected in several ways, both because of the similar questions they pose, because of certain historical processes that have influenced them, and because of the common subject matter they address—the human mind or soul.

In: International Journal of Jungian Studies
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Abstract

This article investigates the agency of the architecture of the Temple of Apollo at Claros and its cognitive impact on the ritual of divination. In the comparison with Delphi, Claros represents a peculiar example of how architecture evolved to suit and shape at the same time the ritual it was hosting. The paper starts with the analysis of the exteriors of the building, highlighting the choice of the Doric style dictated by the desire of being associated to Delphi. A further analysis of the internal layout gives the author a chance of describing the cognitive inputs that the peculiar structure sent to the ancient mind. Specifically, the paper studies how the narrow tunnels made of black marble that turned seven times and the underground cave like adyton created a situation of sensory confusion in the mind of the seekers and the oracle that found themselves prone to detect agencies in the surrounding space and specifically to identify the agent with Apollo.

Open Access
In: Journal of Cognition and Culture

Abstract

Recent neuropaleontological research suggests that the parietal lobe has increased in size as much as the frontal lobes in Homo Sapiens over the past 150,000 years, but has not provided a neuropsychological explanation for the evolution of human socialization or the development of religion. Drawing from several areas of research, (i.e., neurodevelopment, neuropsychology, paleoneurology, cognitive science, archeology, and anthropology), we argue that parietal evolution in Homo sapiens integrated sensations and mental processes into a more integrated subjective “sense of self”. This enhanced self advanced prosocial traits (e.g., increased empathy, greater social bonding, enhanced theory of mind capacities), promoting more effective socialization skills (e.g., parenting, group cooperation). Conversely, when this enhanced sense of self became inhibited, powerful experiences of self-transcendence occurred. We believe these potent selfless experiences became increasingly sought after though ritual means (e.g., music, dance, vision quests, spirit travel), providing the foundations for the development of shamanism and religion.

In: Journal of Cognition and Culture
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In: Journal of Cognition and Culture