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Ethik-Kommissionen als Orte ethischen Lernens und ethischer Theorie-Bildung
Ethik-Kommissionen sind ein etabliertes und bewährtes Instrument ethischer Deliberation und Beratung in unterschiedlichen Handlungs- und Erfahrungsfeldern (Medizin, Biotechnologie etc.). Der Band geht der Frage nach, inwieweit Ethik-Kommissionen selbst Orte ethischen Lernens und ethischer Theorie-Bildung sind.
Neuartige ethische Herausforderungen in Medizin, Biotechnologie, Technik, Umwelt u.a.m. werfen die Frage auf, wie im Kontext einer pluralen Gesellschaft empirisch fundiert und ethisch reflektiert verantwortliche Handlungsempfehlungen, normative Entscheidungen und gesetzliche Regelungen getroffen werden können. Ethik-Kommissionen lassen sich dabei als konkrete Orte angewandter Ethik in praktischer Perspektive verstehen. Doch wie wirken sich die Erfahrungen von Ethik-Kommissionen auf das Ethik-Treiben selbst und das Selbstverständnis als Ethiker aus? Der Band versammelt Beiträge von Ethikern, die vielfältige Erfahrungen in Ethik-Kommissionen gemacht haben.
Jochen Sautermeister war 2014-2017 Inhaber der Stiftungsprofessur für Moraltheologie unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Moralpsychologie an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München. Derzeit ist er Professor für Moraltheologie und Direktor des Moraltheologischen Seminars an der Universität Bonn und seit 2019 Dekan der Katholisch-Theologischen Fakultät.
Er ist Mitglied der Zentralen Ethik-Kommission für Stammzellenforschung am Robert-Koch-Institut, des Instituts für Wissenschaft und Ethik der Universität Bonn und des International Xenotransplantation Association Ethics Committee.
Author: Sarah Czerny
How does milk become cow milk, donkey milk or human milk? When one closely explores this question, the species differences between milks is not as stable as one might initially assume, even if one takes an embodied perspective. To show this, this book takes readers through an ethnographic comparison of milk consumption and production in Croatia in a range of different social settings: on farms, in mother-infant breastfeeding relations, in food hygiene documentation and in the local landscape. In doing so, it argues that humans actually invest considerable work into abstracting and negotiating milks into their human and animal forms.
From rethinking feminist archives, to inserting postpornography in academia, to approaching sex toys from a transpositive perspective, to dismantling the foundations of techno-capitalism, the areas of inquiry in this book are lenses through which to explore the relationships between genders, bodies and technologies. All the various chapters work to reimagine the body as a hybrid, malleable and subversive source of potentiality. These essays offer readers road maps for unimagined and uncharted social scapes: the relationship between bodies–technologies–genders means working within a space of monstrosity. Through this embodied discomfort the book questions existing techno-social norms, and imagines tranfeminist futures.

Contributors are: Carlotta Cossutta, Valentina Greco, Arianna Mainardi, Stefania Voli, Lucía Egaña Rojas, Ludovico Virtù, Angela Balzano, Obiezione Respinta, Elisa Virgili, Rachele Borghi, and Diego Marchante “Genderhacker”.
Author: Ludwig Siep
Recent aspirations towards the technical perfection of humanity and nature call for a new type of ethics.
The overcoming of all human weakness is often viewed as a personal right as well as a common good. But fully overcoming human weakness would undermine the basis for mutual support and recognition. The achievement of complete technical independence from natural forces would end the embeddedness of humanity within natural history. This book defends the necessity of ethical assessment against the automatism of relying on technical developments or market processes. To identify both the values and ethical limits of technology development, criteria for the goodness of human life, and for nature in general, are required. This includes a meta-ethical discussion of moral objectivity, philosophical anthropology, and moral history. On the basis of that discussion, conclusions are drawn about ethical debates in the domains of medicine, biotechnology, and information technology.
Konzeptionelle, soziale und ethische Implikationen neuer Mensch-Technik-Verhältnisse
Die Beiträge des Bandes untersuchen, inwiefern aktuelle Entwicklungen im Bereich der Künstlichen Intelligenz (KI) zu neuartigen Interaktionsprozessen führen und das Verhältnis von Menschen und Maschinen verändern.
Im ersten Teil des Bandes werden neue Entwicklungen KI-basierter Technologien in diversen Anwendungs- und Entwicklungsbereichen vorgestellt. Im zweiten Teil werden hier zu beobachtende neuartige Mensch-Maschine-Interaktionen aus unterschiedlichen disziplinären Perspektiven diskutiert. Im dritten Teil werden diese auf ihre sozialen, ethischen und epistemologischen Implikationen hin befragt.

Abstract

The current study elaborates on the place, status and functions of the concept of ābirū in Shīʿī religious discourse in contemporary Iran. Its main source material has been selected from a variety of rulings (fatwās) and other type of statements delivered by Iranian marājiʿ taqlīd (sources of emulation). By emphasizing the significance of the concept of ābirū in the Iranian tradition and its reception within the Shīʿī tradition, this study outlines the main functions attributed to the idea of ‘good reputation’ and ‘positive social image’ in contemporary Iranian religious jurisprudence. The analysis of the rulings issued by Iranian clergy allows one to distinguish how the idea of ābirū influences verdicts in different aspects of the life of a believer – personal, ethical, legal and political. The study reveals the flexible way in which this moral concept is being incorporated into judgements which, in turn, may result in a novel and nuanced understanding of many Islamic principles, especially in socio-political perspectives.

Open Access
In: Journal of Islamic Ethics

الخلاصة

‫تعترض التنبؤ الجيني في العلم الحديث تساؤلات عن مدى كونه يتعارض مع الموقف الإسلامي من الغيب، حيث وردت نصوص تحرم أنماطًا من التنبؤ بالغيب، فهل ينطبق على التنبؤ الجيني ما ينطبق على التنبؤ بالغيب؟ تناقش هذه الدراسة هذا الموضوع من خلال ثلاثة محاور، الأول: تحرير مفهوم الغيب في القرآن، والثاني: تحرير مفهوم مفاتيح الغيب الذي بنيت عليه القضايا المشكلة في الموضوع، والمحور الثالث: تحرير علة ما تم تحريمه أو السماح به من أنماط التنبؤ بالغيب، مع استعراض تاريخي لمواقف الفقهاء من القيافة وبناء الأحكام عليها كنموذج من نماذج التنبؤ، وانتهت الدراسة إلى أن مناط المنع أو الاباحة في التنبؤ يرتبط بعلمية الوسيلة وخلوها من التلبس بمعتقد ديني ينافي التوحيد، وأن ما ينطبق على التنبؤ بالغيب ينطبق على التنبؤ الجيني.‬

Open Access
In: Journal of Islamic Ethics

Abstract

It is hard to imagine human beings without animals: they surround them incessantly. Be it the pets in their own homes, the farm animals in the fields, the birds in the sky, or the insects in the gardens. Human beings cannot be without animals. It may therefore not be surprising that the Qurʾān, as a message addressed to human beings, also refers to animals: dozens of different animals are mentioned in the Qurʾān. Thus, we find the narration of the ant who speaks (Q 27:17–19), the hoopoe who gives advice (Q 27:20–26), and even the raven who taught Qābīl a lesson (Q 5:31). The Qurʾān is full of such narratives that break with traditional images of animals by turning them into supposed aides, giving them voices, and even portraying them as creatures capable of praise, living in communities. God Himself seems to interact with animals in the Qurʾān, even allowing them to become actors in interactions with the Prophets. But how can these narratives be understood? What added value can they offer to the question of the ethically appropriate and just treatment of animals? To answer these questions, this article intends to turn to selected Qurʾānic narratives about encounters between humans and animals by using a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. For this purpose, this text will deal with the encounters between humans and animals to explore how an ethical coexistence of human beings and animals can be conceived on the basis of being-with (-each other).

Open Access
In: Journal of Islamic Ethics
David Novak is widely recognized as one of the most prominent Jewish thinkers in North America today and his most important contribution to philosophy has been his work on natural law. This book is an exploration of the shift in the content and context of that theory by reference to the metaphysical meaning that Novak ultimately assigns to reason. This change is then analyzed within the framework of Novak’s covenantal theology and his developing view of redemption in particular. Through this examination, this book highlights the contribution of Novak's natural law theory to the continuing debate over the role of reason in Judaism.
In: Understanding the Evolving Meaning of Reason in David Novak's Natural Law Theory