Latin American labor markets are remarked on for their structural heterogeneity, which, over the years, has been the result of a growing labor surplus. Thus, the digital labor platforms in delivery services that have emerged are breaking into a complex labor landscape, imposing new challenges. We intend to describe what forms the workers’ collective actions take and how these collective actions and their forms are linked with the labor institutions’ settings. We use three case studies with a comparative perspective of both national labor institutions and the history of collective action, particularly in the urban labor context. We collected secondary information from news media and academic bibliographies and primary information through interviews with collectives’ representatives. Our results show how the logic of digital platforms challenges collective action, and how the history of labor institutions might contribute to the rise of new forms of organization.
The article demonstrates that the knowledge of the Syriac language in Western Europe first developed amongst Christian scholars with a strong interest in Kabbalah and that they attributed a mystical dimension to the Syriac language that was not associated with it before. After a survey of the first authors that played a significant role in shaping the appropriation of Syriac as a mystical language (Teseo Ambrogio, Postel, Widmanstetter), I show that the newly discovered last work of Christian Knorr von Rosenroth constitutes the climax of that movement. The study of the later reception of Knorr’s work in modern occultism indicates that the Syriac language was eclipsed by the renewed favor of Hebrew language, considered as the magical and mystical language par excellence.
The (re-)organization of knowledge concerning kabbalistic concepts constituted an important literary activity for authors, beginning with the late medieval through the early modern periods. The examination of the anonymous Ma‘arekhet ha-Elohut, Meir ibn Gabbai’s ‘Avodat ha-Qodesh, and Moses Cordovero’s Pardes Rimmonim, help to re-focus scholarly attention on the literary genre of kabbalistic encyclopedias that served four interrelated objectives. One, to create order in divergent, sometimes contradictory theories of kabbalistic doctrine. Two, to delineate the contours of legitimate kabbalistic knowledge. Three, to provide theological guidance as prerequisites and as ultimate goals for the study of Kabbalah. Four, to generate a pedagogic outline for acquisition of kabbalistic wisdom. The organizational adjustments adopted in these works offered a treatment of teachings, texts, and theories that had accumulated in geographically disparate Jewish communities. At the same time, systematization conferred authority in the world of Jewish mystical ideas laying the framework for a kabbalistic curriculum.
The Cypriot Peasant Revolt of 1426 represents a unique expression of peasant resistance during the period of Frankish rule in Cyprus. The island’s Mamluk invasion in 1426 was followed by the defeat and capture of King Janus of Lusignan at the Battle of Khirokitia and the subsequent sack of Nicosia; upon the Muslim withdrawal, the peasants took up arms against the Frankish nobility, establishing their own hierarchy and proclaiming a peasant king: Alexis the serf. Based on the little information we possess on the event, this paper attempts to understand the nature of the revolt by transcending the methodological dichotomy of pure ethnic/national vs. pure class/social conflict.
Giovanni Maria Visconti, member of a prominent family of the Milanese patriciate, had an important career in his order as a teacher and spiritual director, and a valuable role in the internal government of the Society, between Milan and Genoa. After the death of Anton Giulio Brignole Sale, he was charged by his superiors with the task of writing a hagiographic biography of this famous man of letters and politician (son of a Genoese duke) who, after a long cursus honorum in the public offices of his republic and during a period of political crisis of the Genoese state, decided to end his career to become a diocesan priest, and, some years later, a member of the Society of Jesus. The work was published in 1666, with the title Alcune memorie delle virtù del padre Anton Giulio Brignole (Some memoirs of the virtues of Father Anton Giulio Brignole). It is an interesting book especially because the author, while describing Brignole Sale’s life and heroic virtues, also explained his transformation from the role of Catholic statesman to the role of religious preacher.
The conclusion of this collection of studies endeavors to recapture five major questions that this special issue of the Journal of Jesuit Studies poses on the subject of martyrdom: Is this gesture a form of imitation of Christ (or imitatio Christi) or is it itself a sacrifice? How does it get rid of the shadow of suicide or voluntary death? How do the singularity of its experience and the community within which and in the name of which it is exercised articulate? Can martyrdom be defined as a renunciation of human love, and in this sense as the ultimate step in a process of conversion? How does martyrdom take its place in the writing of the religious history of the modern era, in particular, as far as the Society of Jesus is concerned, in the historiography of the nineteenth century? These five questions open this collection of essays to a field of research that remains to be pursued.