The present article investigates Shafi Adam Shafi’s Vuta n’kuvute (The tug of war, 1999), a historical novel which is set in Zanzibar in the late colonial period. Textual analysis highlights how the novel’s linguistic and stylistic peculiarities intermingle inextricably with the contents in constructing the text as a whole, as they are loaded with meanings and symbolic implications which help in the reconstruction of many aspects of the work in connection to the literary, socio-cultural and political context of contemporary Tanzania.
Gian Claudio Batic
It is a well-known fact that in Chadic languages the notion of verbal plurality falls into two categories: agreement plurality, where a plural subject requires a plural verbal form, and pluractionality, a form used to encode the iterativity (i.e. repetitiveness) or multiplicity (i.e. multiple effects on arguments) of an action. Kushi, a West Chadic language spoken in north-eastern Nigeria, presents both types of plural. In this article, I will illustrate the derivational strategies employed to encode verbal plurality in Kushi—suffixation, infixation, and gemination—showing the existing correlation between plural form and root shape (i.e. verb class). Interesting features of Kushi plurals are the existence of two plurality morphemes (one for non-subjunctive TAM paradigms and one for the subjunctive) and the quality of the final vowel in subjunctive plural verbal forms. All the data used in this paper have been collected in the framework of an on-going project of documentation and description of Kushi.
Krishna Del Toso
With the present study an analysis in three parts is provided of the Buddhist reception of two Cārvāka/Lokāyata stanzas, abbreviated as “wolf’s footprint” and the “beautiful lady”. These stanzas seem to be conceptually related to each other, having the common aim to emphasize the idea that one should rely only upon what is or can be perceived. Consequently, from here it is concluded that any perspective concerning the existence of an afterlife or of a moral retribution of our actions, since these things cannot be directly perceived, should be abandoned. The first part of the article is a study of the occurrences of the two stanzas in the Buddhist sources, taking into account also new material, recently discovered, together with a comparison with the Jain sources. The second and third parts discuss respectively Avalokitavrata’s and Jayānanda’s interpretations of the stanzas, offering also for the first time to the reader a translation and analysis of their versions of the “wolf’s footprint” tale, so far studied only from Jain sources.
Maartje Janse and Anne-Lot Hoek
This publication emerges from a process of co-creation in which historian Maartje Janse and research journalist Anne-Lot Hoek challenge the dominant national narrative about the colonial experience in the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). In combining journalistic and academic writing with musical performance by musician Ernst Jansz they amplify the critical voices that have spoken out against colonial injustice and that have long been ignored in public and academic debate. Even though it is often suggested that the mindset of people in the past prevented them from seeing what was wrong with things we now find highly problematic, they argue that there was indeed a tradition of colonial criticism in the Netherlands, one that included the voices of many ‘forgotten critics’ whose lives and criticism are the subject of this publication. The voices however were for a long time overlooked by Dutch historians. The publication is organized around the biographies of several critics (whose lives Janse and Hoek have published on before), the historical debate afterwards and includes reflective videos and texts on the process of co-creation.
Maartje Janse started the process by tracing the life history of an outspoken nineteenth-century critic of the colonial system in the Dutch East Indies, Willem Bosch. The authors argue that it was not self-evident how criticism of colonial injustices should be voiced and that Bosch experimented with different methods, including organizing one of the first Dutch pressure groups.
The story of Willem Bosch inspired Ernst Jansz, a Dutch musician with Indo roots, to compose a song (‘De ballade van Sarina en Kromo’). It is an interpretation of an old Malaysian ‘krontjong’ song, that Jansz transformed into a protest song that reminds its listeners of protest songs of the 1960s and 1970s. Jansz, in his lyrics, adds an indigenous perspective to this project. He performed the song during the Voice4Thought festival in 2016, a gathering that aimed to reflect upon migration and mobility in current times. Filmmaker Sjoerd Sijsma made a video ‘pamplet’ in which the performance of Ernst Jansz, an interview with Maartje Janse, and historical images from the colonial period have been combined.
Anne-Lot Hoek connected Willem Bosch to a series of twentieth-century anti-colonial critics such as Dutch Indies civil servant Siebe Lijftogt, Indonesian nationalists Sutan Sjahrir, Rachmad Koesoemobroto, Dutch writer Rudy Kousbroek and Indonesian activist Jeffry Pondaag. She argues that dissenting voices have been underrepresented in the post-war debates on colonialism and its legacy for decades, and that one of the main reasons is that the notion of the objective historian was not effectively problematized for a long time.
Pedro David Gomes
Este artigo propõe-se refletir sobre a relação entre o processo de ‘desportivização’ do automobilismo e as motivações que a elite local projetava sobre a modalidade, averiguando de que forma se coadunavam com a ideia da unidade do império. Procura-se explicar como os critérios sociais de entrada neste desporto foram evoluindo e como isso era revelador de rivalidades e dinâmicas económicas mais amplas que moviam os investidores a apostarem na modalidade para promover as suas marcas. A construção do Autódromo de Luanda e a internacionalização das ‘6 horas de Nova Lisboa’ ajudaram a popularizar a modalidade incentivando vínculos identitários locais que ora se articularam com os interesses do governo ora com interesses autonomistas de uma elite local.
This article argues that Portugal was not immune to the experience of Muscular Catholicism, through which the Church tried to strengthen its own imagined community after 1945. This was an imagined community that the Church hoped that it would involve the whole continent starting from Italy, where the “Catholic sport” was trying to take the place of the “fascist” sport. Indeed, the Church overcame its distrust of football in this period, making it one of the symbols of its “banal internationalism”, and one of the means by which Pius XII tried to make the idea of a totalitarian Church a reality, as suggested by Pius XI.
Nuno Domingos and Victor Pereira
En 1965, José Cutileiro, alors doctorant en anthropologie sociale à l’Université d’Oxford, envoie à son directeur de thèse, John Campbell, l’ébauche d’un essai ethnographique portant sur l’équipe de football du Sport Lisboa e Benfica où il a mené une enquête pionnière. Cet essai n’arrive jamais à destination car il est intercepté et conservé par la police politique portugaise. Plus de cinq décennies après sa rédaction, ce texte est publié pour la première fois. Il révèle un programme de recherche et des problématiques qui restent encore pertinents non seulement pour l’étude du football au Portugal mais surtout pour l’interprétation des structures historiques de la société portugaise. La publication de ce document inédit est précédé par une présentation qui insère la recherche par José Cutileiro dans les courants de l’anthropologie de l’époque, le mettant notamment en rapport avec les recherches menées par certaines figures de l’école de Manchester comme Max Gluckman.
David G. Frier
This article examines Lisbon’s National Stadium (opened in 1944, amidst strong expressions of nationalistic pride) in the light of Pierre Nora’s concept of lieux de mémoire, while taking issue with his (and others’) insistence on the primacy of national identity. A flexible use of the stadium, not as a fixed monument, but rather as a blank canvas onto which successive generations of football fans have imposed their varying memories and subjective identities (examined through press reports and other contemporary sources), enables the site to retain its place in the popular imagination, in spite of its past political associations.