El éxodo español de 1939

Una topología cultural del exilio

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Mónica Jato

El éxodo español de 1939: una topología cultural del exilio explores the cultural strategies employed by Spanish Republican refugees in adapting to radical changes in their environment and transforming the new spaces into habitable places. Thus the monograph highlights the centrality of the concept of place in the reconstruction of the lost home by analysing the various stages of the relocation of culture in exile: from French internment camps, on board ship, and finally to residence in Mexico.
Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, Jato contends that the experience of space in exile is relational, and that the staging posts described in each chapter have no meaning unless they are interconnected as integral parts of a cultural topology.



En El éxodo español de 1939: una topología cultural del exilio Mónica Jato da cuenta de las variadas estrategias culturales empleadas por los refugiados republicanos españoles para adaptarse a las condiciones de sus nuevos entornos con el fin de transformalos en lugares habitables. El libro indaga así la centralidad del concepto de lugar en la reconstrucción del hogar perdido y lo hace a través de sus diferentes etapas: en los campos de internamiento franceses, en los barcos rumbo a América y durante el asentamiento en tierras mexicanas.
La experiencia del exilio es abordada aquí desde una perspectiva interdisciplinaria que pone de manifiesto el aspecto relacional de estas pausas espaciales cuya interconexión define esta particular topología cultural.

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Edited by Patricia Vilches

In Negotiating Space in Latin America, edited by Patricia Vilches, contributors approach spatial practices from multidisciplinary angles. Drawing on cultural studies, film studies, gender studies, geography, history, sociology, tourism, and current events, the volume advances innovative conceptualizations on spatiality and treats subjects that range from nineteenth century-nation formation to twenty-first century social movements.
Latin America has endured multiple spatial transformations, which contributors analyze from the perspective of the urban, the rural, the market, and the political body. The essays collected here signal how spatial processes constantly shape societal interactions and illuminate the complex relationships between humans and space, emphasizing the role of spatiality in our actions and perceptions.

Contributors: Gail A. Bulman, Ana María Burdach Rudloff, James Craine, Angela N. DeLutis-Eichenberger, Carolina Di Próspero, Gustavo Fares, Jennifer Hayward, Silvia Hirsch, Edward Jackiewicz, Magdalena Maiz-Peña, Lucía Melgar, Silvia Nagy-Zekmi, Luis H. Peña, Jorge Saavedra Utman, Rosa Tapia, Juan de Dios Torralbo Caballero, era Trujillo, Patricia Vilches, and Gareth Wood.

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Daniela Spenser

Founder of numerous labour unions in Mexico and Latin America between 1920s and 1960s, Vicente Lombardo Toledano was not only an organiser but also a broker between them, the government and business managers, able to disentangle difficult conflicts. An operator of the Mexican government and when he found it appropriate of the neighbouring nations and even on behalf of the Soviet Union, he was identified with communism without belonging to the party and with the party of the Mexican government without being its member.

Daniela Spenser´s is the first biography of Lombardo Toledano, based on primary sources from European, Mexican and American archives, and on personal interviews. Her even-keeled portrayal of the man counters previous hagiographies or vilifications.

Moving Spaces

Creolisation and Mobility in Africa, the Atlantic and Indian Ocean

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Edited by Marina Berthet, Fernando Rosa and Shaun Viljoen

Moving Spaces: Creolisation and Mobility in Africa, the Atlantic and Indian Ocean addresses issues of creolisation, mobility, and migration of ideas, songs, stories, and people, as well as plants, in various parts of Africa, the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean worlds. It brings together Anglophone, Francophone and Lusophone specialists from various fields – anthropology, geography, history, language & literary studies – from Africa, Brazil, Europe, and the Indo-Pacific. It is a book which, while opening new perspectives, also intriguingly suggests that languages are essential to all processes of creolisation, and that therefore the latter cannot be understood without reference to the former. Its strength therefore lies in bringing together studies from different language domains, particularly Afrikaans, Creole, English, French, Portuguese, and Sanskrit.

Contributors include Andrea Acri, Joaze Bernardino, Marina Berthet, Alain Kaly, Uhuru Phalafala, Haripriya Rangan, Fernando Rosa, António Tomás and Shaun Viljoen.

Translating Marx

José Aricó and the New Latin American Marxism

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Martín Cortés

To speak of ‘Latin American Marxism’ is to announce a problem. To what extent can Marxism, a theoretical universe forged from nineteenth-century European experiences, also be productive for grasping other realities? How can we begin to make sense of the historical disconnection between that specific corpus of ideas and Latin America’s popular movements? Martín Cortés addresses these questions by considering the trajectory and works of José Aricó, who sought to rethink and disseminate in Spanish not only the works of Marx himself, but also those of foundational socialist thinkers such as Antonio Gramsci.
Guided by an interest in Marxism’s renovation, Cortés explores Aricó’s vital contributions to key topics in political theory, such as the nation, the state, the political subject, and hegemony.

Workers’ Self-Management in Argentina

Contesting Neo-Liberalism by Occupying Companies, Creating Cooperatives, and Recuperating Autogestión

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Marcelo Vieta

In Workers’ Self-Management in Argentina, Marcelo Vieta homes in on the emergence and consolidation of Argentina’s empresas recuperadas por sus trabajadores (ERTs, worker-recuperated enterprises), a workers’ occupy movement that surged at the turn-of-the-millennium in the thick of the country’s neo-liberal crisis. Since then, around 400 companies have been taken over and converted to cooperatives by almost 16,000 workers. Grounded in class-struggle Marxism and a critical sociology of work, the book situates the ERT movement in Argentina’s long tradition of working-class activism and the broader history of workers’ responses to capitalist crisis. Beginning with the voices of the movement’s protagonists, Vieta ultimately develops a compelling social theory of autogestión – a politically prefigurative and ethically infused notion of workers’ self-management that unleashes radical social change for work organisations, surrounding communities, and beyond.

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Martijn van den Bel and Gérard Collomb

Abstract

During the 16th century, the Amerindian population of the Guianas was already aware and in contact with the Spanish settlement at Margarita. The Aruacas, the privileged allies of the Spanish, relied on their large socio-political (trade) network to obtain victuals and commercial goods from the Guianas but also raided Caribe villages to assure red slaves for the Spanish plantations and mines in the Antilles. The first encounters between the Amerindians of the eastern Guianas and the English, Dutch and French show fear of the Spanish and their allies but this arrival is taken by the local population to wage war against the Spanish and Aruacas but this time also accompanied by a North European force. These encounters took place mainly in the embouchures of rivers along the Guiana Coast, establishing a ‘zone franche’ or socio-economical free zone populated by Europeans and Amerindians which was dominated by the latter, notably the Yao of the Oyapock estuary, who controlled this coastal area through access of interior beyond the falls. In this contribution we will focus upon the Amerindian policies and alliances in these encounters, dubbed the ‘Yao Connection.’

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Marlieke Ernst and Corinne L. Hofman

Abstract

Placed within the context of the ERC-NEXUS1492 research, this paper focusses on transformations in indigenous social and material worlds in Early Colonial Hispaniola. The initial intercultural encounters in the New World have led to the creation of entirely new social identities and changing material culture repertoires in the first decennia after colonization. The incorporation of European earthenwares in the indigenous sites of El Cabo and Playa Grande will be contrasted with the presence of indigenous ceramics and new manufacturing traditions in the early Spanish colonial sites of Cotuí and Concepción de la Vega. The transformation processes in ceramic repertoires will be assessed through a multi-pronged approach using theories of gift giving, appropriation and imitation combined with archaeological and ethnoarchaeological studies of the operational sequence (chaine opératoire) of ceramic manufacture. The paper presents new insights into the dynamics of Amerindian-European-African interactions, mutual influences and resilience at the onset of colonial encounters in the Americas.

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Mary Jane Berman and Perry L. Gnivecki

Abstract

During the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, the Bahama archipelago functioned as a colonial frontier impacted by Spanish policies and practices. European objects, which made their way there through numerous pathways, were easily incorporated into the indigenous (Lucayan) economic and cultural systems due to the precedents set by the Lucayan’s familiarity with non-local items and peoples through trade, exchange, and raids. Additionally, the Lucayans found European objects to be analogous to materials they knew, understood, and valued, and so they were easily assimilated into their material repertoire. The absence of direct colonial control, the sporadic and intermittent duration of direct contact experiences with the Spanish, and the manner in which the Lucayans were removed from their homeland are determined to be the reasons why we find little material evidence of Spanish encounters, minimal to no alteration of European objects, and to date, no incorporation of Spanish artifacts or elements into indigenous artifacts.

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Corinne L. Hofman, Menno L.P. Hoogland, Arie Boomert, and John Angus Martin

Abstract

During the colonization processes vast webs of social relationships emerged between Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans in the Lesser Antilles. The intercultural dynamics which materialized during this period were likely contingent on local and regional networks of peoples, goods, and ideas which had developed in the Caribbean over the previous 5000 years. This paper focusses on the impacts of colonial encounters on indigenous Carib societies by studying transformations in settlement pattern and organization, material culture, and network strategies. Recent excavations at the early colonial sites of Argyle, St. Vincent and La Poterie, Grenada have revealed the remains of indigenous villages and a set of material culture evidencing the first Amerindian, European and African interactions in the southern Lesser Antilles. In this paper, we will advance novel perspectives on intercultural dynamics in colonial encounter situations and contribute to discussions of indigenous resistance, cultural transformations, and cultural diversity in an ever globalizing world.