Manouchehr Hosseinvand, Ali Eskandari and Reza Ghaderi


The second population of Pratylenchoides riparius, including females and males, is described and illustrated based upon morphological, morphometric and molecular data. The present population from Iran is characterised by some differences with the type population of the species from Hungary in stylet length (24-26 vs 21-22 μm), slightly longer body (1002-1230 vs 830-960 μm), pharynx (202-211 vs 182-190 μm) and tail (64-85 vs 48-57 μm), areolated outer bands of the lateral field (vs non-areolated), widening of the lateral field near tail terminus (vs lateral incisures connecting each other) and presence of males (vs absent). The taxonomic status of the species with regarding the data from the type and presently recovered population, as well as the closely similar species is discussed. The newly recovered population was studied based upon its molecular phylogenetic charactes using the D2-D3 of 28S rRNA and the partial 18S rRNA gene sequences and the results revealed that it forms a clade with P. magnicauda in 28S, but occupies a distant placement from it in 18S phylogeny.

Jessica M.S. Monteiro, Vanessa S. Mattos, Marcilene F.A. Santos, Ana C.M.M. Gomes, Valdir R. Correa, Daniela A. Sousa, Juvenil E. Cares, Jadir B. Pinheiro and Regina M.D.G. Carneiro


The type population of Meloidogyne polycephannulata is synonymised with M. incognita based on morphological and morphometric characters, as well as biochemical, molecular and phylogenetic studies. Morphological variability and a wide host range were reported for M. incognita during its first description and later re-description. Meloidogyne polycephannulata was described in Brazil from specimens collected in a carrot field (type population). The esterase phenotype (Est) characterised for this species was identical to the phenotype Est I2 of M. incognita, the most ubiquitous phenotype used for diagnostics. Morphological and morphometric characters of the descriptions of the two nominal species showed major similarities, as well as variability within the range of variation detected in M. incognita. In PCR assays, three SCAR markers species-specific for M. incognita (incK14 F/R, Mi/FR and incB06 F/R) amplified the same fragments of 399 bp, 955 bp and 1200 bp, respectively, for populations in both species. In phylogenetic studies based either on concatenated sequences of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, D2-D3 rRNA, mitochondrial COII regions or on RAPD and AFLP data, the populations of both species grouped in the same clade with high bootstrap support. Altogether, these results provide congruent evidence that the M. polycephannulata type isolate deposited at the Embrapa Cryopreserved National Collection of Root-knot Nematodes is not a valid species but rather a junior synonym of M. incognita.

Dana K. Howe, McKinley Smith, Danielle M. Tom, Amanda M.V. Brown, Amy B. Peetz, Inga A. Zasada and Dee R. Denver


Bacterial symbioses play important roles in shaping diverse biological processes in nematodes, and serve as targets in nematode biocontrol strategies. Focusing on the Xiphinema americanum species complex, we expanded upon recent research investigating patterns of coevolution between Xiphinema spp. and Xiphinematobacter spp., utilising two symbiont genetic markers of varying evolutionary rates. Phylogenetic analysis of nematode mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) revealed five strongly supported major clades. Analysis of slow-evolving 16S rDNA in bacterial symbionts resulted in a phylogenetic topology composed of four major clades that grouped taxa highly congruent with the nematode mtDNA topology. A faster evolving protein-coding symbiont gene (nad) provided more phylogenetic resolution with seven well-supported clades, also congruent with the nematode mtDNA tree topology. Our results reinforce recent studies suggesting extensive coevolution between Xiphinema spp. and their vertically transmitted endosymbionts Xiphinematobacter spp. and illustrate the advantages of including genetic markers of varying evolutionary rates in coevolutionary and phylogenetic studies.

Zhen Wang, Wim Bert, Jianfeng Gu, Marjolein Couvreur and Hongmei Li


Aphelenchoides medicagus n. sp. isolated in Ningbo Port, P.R. China, from dried leaves and shoots of Medicago sativa imported from the USA, is described. It is characterised by a lateral field with four lines (three bands), stylet 9.0-12.0 μm long, excretory pore situated at same level as, or slightly posterior, to the nerve ring, vagina sclerotised, female vulval flap absent, post-uterine sac short, spicules 9.2-14.2 μm long (median curved line), rosethorn-shaped, apex and rostrum rounded, poorly developed, female and male tail conical with terminus bearing star-like processes. The new species belongs to the Group 3 category of Aphelenchoides species sensu Shahina. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S, ITS and 28S D2-D3 of rDNA and mtCOI sequences confirmed its status as a new species and closely related to A. besseyi and A. fujianensis.

Ali Roshan-Bakhsh, Ebrahim Pourjam, Mahdi Ayyari and Majid Pedram


Extracts of nine agricultural wastes prepared with five different solvents were assessed for their potential nematicidal activity against three nematode species, Aphelenchus avenae, Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus neglectus, in in vitro condition. The 50% v/v hydro-ethanolic extracts showed the highest performance for two tested plant wastes of cabbage leaves and faba bean pods. These two extracts were tested on nematodes in three different concentrations. The highest in vitro nematistatic activity was recorded for 3000 and 1500 ppm of cabbage leaf extracts by 100% paralysis of all three nematode species after 48 h, and the highest nematicidal activity was recorded for the above-mentioned extract by 25-100% mortality depending on nematode species and extract concentration. A 14-94% mortality was recorded for all three species of nematodes after treatment with faba bean pod hydro-ethanolic extract in in vitro conditions. Hatching inhibition and repellent activity of cabbage leaf and faba bean pod extracts were observed in P. neglectus and M. incognita. In vivo assays confirmed the in vitro results when both of the extracts showed moderate to high inhibition of nematode population development and nematode infection parameters on tomato root system in pot experiments.

Tim C. Thoden and John A. Wiles


Salibro™ is a novel sulfonamide nematicide containing the active substance (a.s.) fluazaindolizine (Reklemel™ active). Its biochemical mode of action is presently unknown but in internal laboratory studies it exerted adverse effects on various fitness parameters (motility, mobility and infectivity) of two species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla). While not causing an immediate knock-down effect on second-stage juveniles (J2) during the first 24-48 h of exposure to concentrations of 1-50 ppm (a.s.), exposed J2 showed clearly visible symptoms of toxicological effects (including characteristic body postures) and started to lose both their mobility as well as infectivity. This decrease in mobility and infectivity was nonreversible, even if the J2 were washed, and was already observed after pre-exposure periods of 24-48 h at 1-50 ppm (a.s.). Lower temperatures during the exposure period (4-10°C) did not prevent toxicological effects of treated J2 but slightly delayed the time-to-effect. By contrast, various vermiform life-stages of the bacteriophagous nematode, Acrobeles buetschlii, did not show any signs of intoxication or reduced motility during continuous exposure to Salibro™ at up to 250 ppm (a.s.). Salibro™ slightly increased hatching of M. hapla but did not significantly impact the hatching of M. incognita at concentrations up to 50 ppm (a.s.). No adverse effects on hatching were observed for A. buetschlii at concentrations up to 250 ppm (a.s.). The results indicate that Salibro™ is an effective and selective nematicide and will be a useful new tool in sustainable nematode management.

Robbie Rae

David J. Chitwood

Pablo Castillo

Natsumi Kanzaki, Hayato Masuya, Yu Ichihara, Noritoshi Maehara, Takuya Aikawa, Taisuke Ekino and Tatsuya Ide


Two new species and a new subspecies of Bursaphelenchus are described. Bursaphelenchus carpini n. sp. and B. cryphali okhotskensis n. subsp. were isolated from Cryphalus carpini emerged from a dead log of a Carpinus sp. collected in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, and from C. piceae emerged from a dead log of Abies sachalinensis collected in Hokkaido, Japan, respectively. Meanwhile, B. laciniatae n. sp. was isolated from the bark of dead Ulmus laciniata, which harboured Scolytus esuriens galleries, collected in Hokkaido, Japan. These three species phylogenetically belong to the eggersi/eremus-group clade and share common typological characters such as a relatively slender body, three-lined lateral field, male spicule with a well-developed condylus, short and wide blade (calomus-lamina complex) and lack of clear cucullus. These three species and subspecies can be distinguished from one another and their close relatives by the condylus shape, female tail shape and phylogenetic and biological characters.