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The Anthology of the Works of Ugo Spirito captures the trajectory of Ugo Spirito’s complex body of thought that spanned more than fifty years, from 1921 to 1977. While confronting difficult contemporary problems related to philosophy and science, liberalism and socialism, fascism and communism, and other economic and ideological aspects such as corporativism and democracy, Spirito revealed a persistent desire to reach truth and the absolute. Yet, he also voiced his failure to consistently believe in any philosophical or political system. Unable to reach ‘incontrovertibility,’ he consistently examined his ideas, developing at the same time the ‘antinomic’ approach, a method of critical analysis that undermined any truth considered ‘incontrovertible.’ Today, Spirito stands as one of most anti-conformist Italian thinkers for he challenged the certainties of modern thought.
Interdisciplinary Reflections
Editor: Jan G. Michel
Scientific progress depends crucially on scientific discoveries. Yet the topic of scientific discoveries has not been central to debate in the philosophy of science. This book aims to remedy this shortcoming. Based on a broad reading of the term “science” (similar to the German term “Wissenschaft ”), the book convenes experts from different disciplines who reflect upon several intertwined questions connected to the topic of making scientific discoveries.
Among these questions are the following: What are the preconditions for making scientific discoveries? What is it that we (have to) do when we make discoveries in science? What are the objects of scientific discoveries, how do we name them, and how do scientific names function? Do dis-coveries in, say, physics and biology, share an underlying structure, or do they differ from each other in crucial ways? Are other fields such as theology and environmental studies loci of scientific discovery? What is the purpose of making scientific discoveries? Explaining nature or reality? Increasing scientific knowledge? Finding new truths? If so, how can we account for instructive blunders and serendipities in science?
In the light of the above, the following is an encompassing question of the book: What does it mean to make a discovery in science, and how can scientific discoveries be distinguished from non-scientific discoveries?
Band II: Mathematik und Naturwissenschaft
Author: Dirk Hartmann
Editor: Dirk Hartmann
Band II baut auf Band I auf und behandelt (als eine Besonderung der Erkenntnistheorie) die Philosophie der Mathematik und die allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie der Naturwissenschaften.
In der Philosophie der Mathematik geht es u.a. um Fragen wie „Was sind die Gegenstände der Mathematik?“, „Lässt sich Mathematik insgesamt auf eine grundlegende Theorie, etwa die Logik, zurückführen?“, „Was ist Wahrscheinlichkeit?“. Die allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie der Naturwissenschaften führt dies weiter in das empirische Feld mit Fragen wie: „Was ist Messen?“, „Was leisten Experimente?“, „Was ist Kausalität?“, „Gibt es Naturgesetze?“, „In welchem Sinne existieren theoretisch postulierte Entitäten wie beispielsweise Atome und Elektronen?“. Im Zusammenhang der letzten Frage wird der im ersten Band formulierte Antirealismus weiter konkretisiert: Anders als dem Antirealismus bzw. Idealismus üblicherweise zugeschrieben, wird vom Autor nicht behauptet, dass es die theoretischen Entitäten in Wahrheit gar nicht gibt, sondern vielmehr, dass ihre Existenz nicht unabhängig von der prinzipiellen Möglichkeit des Wissens um sie ist.
Why does a magnet attract iron? Why does a compass needle point north? Although the magnet or lodestone was known since antiquity, magnetism only became an important topic in natural science and technology in the early modern period. In Magnes Christoph Sander explores this fascinating subject and draws, for the first time, a comprehensive picture of early modern research on magnetism (c. 1500–1650). Covering all disciplines of this period, Magnes examines what scholars understood by ‘magnet’ and ‘magnetism,’ which properties they ascribed to it, in which instruments and practices magnetism was employed, and how they tried to explain this exciting phenomenon. This historical panorama is based on circa 1500 historical sources, including over 100 manuscripts.
A Sceptical Theory of Scientific Inquiry: Problems and Their Progress presents a distinctive re-interpretation of Popper’s ‘critical rationalism’, displaying the kind of spirit found at the L.S.E. before Popper’s retirement. It offers an alternative to interpretations of critical rationalism which have emphasised the significance of research programmes or metaphysics (Lakatos; Nicholas Maxwell), and is closer to the approach of Jagdish Hattiangadi. Briskman gives priority to methodological argument rather than logical formalisms, and takes further his own work on creativity. In addition to offering an important contribution to the understanding of critical rationalism, the book contains interesting engagements with Michael Polanyi and the Meno Paradox. This volume also contains an introduction by the editor, which situates Briskman’s work in the history of the interpretation of ‘critical rationalism’.
Author: Dorothea Friz

Abstract

A stray dog problem is not necessarily due to animals not owned. In fact, it can be caused by owned dogs allowed to roam and reproduce freely around the whole territory. And if the authorities limit themselves to the policy of catching the dogs and keeping them in shelters, the problem will never be solved. Instead, the shelters will soon be very overcrowded, with tremendous animal welfare issues for the imprisoned animals and at a very high cost for the public. Spay/neuter and return projects will instead reduce the number of dogs in the territory and are an essential way of keeping constant control. This is what my experience in Southern Italy taught me.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

Abstract

Breakthroughs in gene editing technologies have made it feasible to create genetically altered (GA) non-human primate (NHP) models of disease. This area of research is accelerating, particularly in China, Japan and the USA, and could lead to an increase in NHP use globally. The hope is that genetic models in animal species closely related to humans will significantly improve understanding of neurological diseases and validation of potential therapeutic interventions, for which there is a dire need. However, the creation and use of GA NHPs raises serious animal welfare and ethical issues, which are highlighted here. It represents a step change in how these highly sentient animals are used in biomedical research, because of the large numbers required, inherent wastage and the sum of the harms caused to the animals involved. There is little evidence of these important issues being addressed alongside the rapidly advancing science. We are still learning about how gene editing tools work in NHPs, and significant added scientific and medical benefit from GA NHP models has yet to be demonstrated. Together, this suggests that current regulatory and review frameworks, in some jurisdictions at least, are not adequately equipped to deal with this emerging, complex area of NHP use.

In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research
In: A Sceptical Theory of Scientific Inquiry: Problems and Their Progress
In: A Sceptical Theory of Scientific Inquiry: Problems and Their Progress
In: A Sceptical Theory of Scientific Inquiry: Problems and Their Progress