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Une identité trinitaire


Béatrice Didier

Par sa situation historique, par la variété des expériences qu'il a vécues, Chateaubriand dans les Mémoires d'Outre-tombe semble parfois être pris de vertige : comment affirmer qu'il est bien le même ? La défense de la liberté lui semble être une constante de son identité. Mas ce combat suffit-il à gommer ses contradictions ? N'y a-t-il pas des failles dans le portrait qu'il entend donner de lui-même ? Faut-il les camoufler, ou permettent-elles, au contraire, d'explorer la richesse d'un (ou plusieurs) moi virtuel qui sous-tendrait toute son existence et que cet « autre moi » de l’écrivain ne parvient pas non plus à épuiser complètement ?

Intercultural Mirrors

Dynamic Reconstruction of Identity

Edited by Marie-Claire Patron and Julia Kraven

Intercultural Mirrors: Dynamic Reconstruction of Identity contains (auto)ethnographic chapters and research-based explorations that uncover the ways our intercultural experiences influence our process of self-discovery and self-construction. The idea of intercultural mirrors is applied throughout all chapters as an instrument of analysis, an heuristic tool, drawn from philosophy, to provide a focus for the analysis of real life experiences. Plato noted that one could see one’s own reflection in the pupil of another’s eye, and suggested that the mirror image provided in the eye of the other person was an essential contributor to self-knowledge. Taking this as a cue, the contributors of this book have structured their writings around the idea that the view of us held by other people provides an essential key to one’s own self-understanding.

Contributors are: James Arvanitakis, Damian Cox, Mark Dinnen, James Ferguson, Tom Frengos, Dennis Harmon, Donna Henson, Alexandra Hoyt, William Kelly, Lucyann Kerry, Julia Kraven, Taryn Mathis, Tony McHugh, Raoul Mortley, Kristin Newton, Marie-Claire Patron, Darren Swanson, and Peter Mbago Wakholi.


Edited by Francesco Venturi

This volume investigates the various ways in which writers comment on, present, and defend their own works, and at the same time themselves, across early modern Europe. A multiplicity of self-commenting modes, ranging from annotations to explicatory prose to prefaces to separate critical texts and exemplifying a variety of literary genres, are subjected to analysis. Self-commentaries are more than just an external apparatus: they direct and control reception of the primary text, thus affecting notions of authorship and readership. With the writer understood as a potentially very influential and often tendentious interpreter of their own work, the essays in this collection offer new perspectives on pre-modern and modern forms of critical self-consciousness, self-representation, and self-validation.

Contributors are Harriet Archer, Gilles Bertheau, Carlo Caruso, Jeroen De Keyser, Russell Ganim, Joseph Harris, Ian Johnson, Richard Maber, Martin McLaughlin, John O’Brien, Magdalena Ożarska, Federica Pich, Brian Richardson, Els Stronks, and Colin Thompson.

Damian Cox


This chapter explores a process by which knowledge of one’s own emotions is facilitated through a mirroring relation: a process I call affect mirroring. I give special emphasis to affect mirrors in intercultural encounters. The first part of the chapter is a philosophical examination of the phenomenon of emotional self-knowledge, in which I describe the fundamental complicating factor in attempts to attain emotional lucidity. The second part of the chapter sets out my account of affect mirrors. They are ways in which we gain emotional self-knowledge by seeing the same emotion displayed by others. In an affect mirror, we come to understand our own emotions by seeing them mirrored by others. The final part of the chapter is an explication of this concept and what it comes to in intercultural contexts. I discuss affect mirrors in two works of cinema, contrasting the way they operate in a monocultural context (the film is Call Me by Your Name) and in an intercultural context (the film is La Promesse). I argue that the intercultural affect mirrors offer opportunities of profound moral transformation.

Barceloneta as Heterotopic Mirror

A Place of Different Spaces

Tony McHugh


Barceloneta (Little Barcelona) is now my second home. Its marketplace has become my heterotopic mirror,1 a concept theorised by Michel Foucault that simultaneously reflects and contests this new place/space of mine. Through a series of selections and ‘fragmentations’ of my time in Barcelona I interrogate how oppositions and alliances, juxtapositions and separations, fundamentally identify a relational process which functions best because of its different combinations. Perhaps it is the uncertainty of the mirror where, ‘I discover myself absent at the place where I am’ (Foucault, 1998 [1967], p. 179) that lays bare the fragility and strength, the confusion and hope, of living ‘out of place’ in a culture that is not my own.

Becoming a Person through Intercultural Communication

A White American’s Experiences in Asia and Africa

William Kelly


Martin Buber’s philosophy of dialogue provides the conceptual framework for understanding the influence of intercultural communication on my identity development. For Buber, the self is relational, and it is only through our encounters with others that we build a self. In line with Buber’s philosophy, I describe my experiences in Asia and Africa over a period of nearly 25 years that led to significant changes in my perception of self. Two major phases of identity development are traced. The first is one of taking advantage of my position as a white American and relating to nonwhite peoples on my terms and treating them as less developed. The second is the phase when I began to understand the historical predicament of non-Western cultures and how Western colonialism and other forms of domination formed the background of my intercultural interactions. At that point, intercultural communication became a vehicle for reaching out to those who are different and to move from an identity that relied on feelings of superiority toward cultural others to an identity based more on mutuality and giving. I ended up attempting to integrate what was valuable from my original cultural background with what I had learned from the cultures of Asia and Africa. This perspective enabled me to see myself as both a unique individual and as a member of larger communities that I could choose to enter, leave, and re-enter.

Kristin Newton


I became aware at an early age how difficult it can be to adapt to another culture and lifestyle. We have an image of ourselves, but is that who we really are? What happens when that image disintegrates? Who are we then? How do others perceive us when we no longer fit the image they had of us? I have taught drawing workshops to hundreds of people from many countries for over 25 years. In a way, entering the world of drawing is like traveling in another country. Drawing changes one’s perceptions, and students experience a kind of culture shock.

When I started writing this chapter, I didn’t expect to focus on drawing as much as I did, but along the way, I realised how much I owe to drawing as a powerful tool of perception. Drawing has taught me many things about life, culture and, especially, the way we perceive and process information. Almost everyone hits a wall in the process of their drawing. I also hit many walls even while teaching people to draw. Still after all these years, living in Japan continuously pushes me and teaches me surprising things about myself.

The Decentred Delegate

Adapting Identity within a Model United Nations Learning Environment

Dennis Harmon II and Mark Dinnen


This chapter provides an analysis of three subjects that participated within a cross-cultural simulation-based learning (SBL) exercise, the Model United Nations (MUN). The aim is to discuss the implications of the decentred self, to the concept of identity and self as a beneficial transformative process that aids in academic and social growth. In the educational setting, both authentic and simulated, the concept of self can be broken, altered, and reconstructed through educational and life-changing encounters. We propose that learners who participate in MUN simulations and conferences are required to represent the interests of nations that are alien to them, thereby acting as a catalyst that alters their worldviews and perspectives of self, and thus, becoming the decentred delegate. This chapter explores these concepts through a Hegelian lens. Individuals, through society, create their identity and concept of self as they develop and grow. These notions come from both actual and imagined interactions. The co-construction of identity within a given society or group provides an avenue for growth in confidence, independence, and the development of a higher empathy and moral standing in the global community. This ethical development emerges through mutual recognition and understanding of others.

Doni Doni Kononi Danala – Little by Little the Little Bird Builds Its Nest

Intercultural Reflections: Western Travel in Non-Western Culture

Alexandra Hoyt


Told from the point of view of Ali Hoyt, an American undergrad college student, living and studying in the Republic of Guinea, West Africa, Doni Doni Kononi Danala – Little by Little the Little Bird Builds its Nest is an ethnographic reflection on intercultural exchanges and friendships across Western and non-Western cultural differences, and the deep and impactful effects of the intercultural mirror: the pupil of the eye of cultural others. Before she embarked on the study abroad trip, Hoyt shaved her head with the reasoning that she would attract less unwanted attention. No makeup or beauty products were purchased on preparatory shopping trips. The version of herself that her homestay families met and got to know was not the version of herself that she typically presented in the West. She was exposed. All of her exterior guards had been removed. Join Hoyt as she reflects on her cross-cultural experience living in Guinea, and the friends she met there who turned into family. The intercultural mirror is at play throughout each twist and turn for this Westerner experiencing non-Western travel for the first time.

Julia Kraven


People from other cultures can be distinctly different from us in their appearance, dressing styles, skin colour, language, verbal and non-verbal behaviour, communication strategies, ways of thinking, knowledge of world history, beliefs and values. This explains why the way they see us is not the same as the way our ingroup members see us. The images of ourselves that we get back from the pupil of the eye of cultural others – what we call “intercultural mirrors” – can be unexpected and new, both in a favourable and unfavourable light. They can enhance or contradict our self-perception the way it was formed through our interactions with our ingroup members. This chapter suggests that developing an understanding of how culturally different people view us adds intricate layers to a person’s perceptual organisation and identity. It enhances the complexity of experiences that we knit together into a narrative we call self.