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Applied Arts in British Exile from 1933

Changing Visual and Material Culture

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Edited by Marian Malet, Rachel Dickson, Sarah MacDougall and Anna Nyborg

Yearbook Volume 19 continues an investigation which began with Arts in Exile in Britain 1933-45 (Volume 6, 2004). Twelve chapters, ten in English and two in German, address and analyse the significant contribution of émigrés across the applied arts, embracing mainstream practices such as photography, architecture, advertising, graphics, printing, textiles and illustration, alongside less well known fields of animation, typography and puppetry. New research adds to narratives surrounding familiar émigré names such as Oskar Kokoschka and Wolf Suschitzky, while revealing previously hidden contributions from lesser known practitioners. Overall, the volume provides a valuable addition to the understanding of the applied arts in Britain from the 1930s onwards, particularly highlighting difficulties faced by refugees attempting to continue fractured careers in a new homeland.

Contributors are: Rachel Dickson, Burcu Dogramaci, Deirdre Fernand, Fran Lloyd, David Low, John March, Sarah MacDougall, Anna Nyburg, Pauline Paucker, Ines Schlenker, Wilfried Weinke, and Julia Winckler.
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Edited by Harjinder Singh Majhail and Sinan Dogan

This book offers fascinating insights into the concept of diaspora by presenting a portrait gallery of writers highlighting diasporas on Welsh, Mauritian, Palestinian, Circassian Kurdish, British Sikh, Dutch Hindustani, Indian, Tamil and African experiences. Harjinder Singh Majhail and Sinan Dogan present the world of diasporas in interesting portrayals such as Gulnur’s research into Circassian history lying hidden in Yistanbulako elegy, Enaya’s visits into Milwaukee in Wisconsin where Palestinian Muslim women marry outside their religion because of the non-availability of suitable partners in their community and Harjinder Majhail’s sojourns into J. K. Rowling’s The Casual Vacancy portraying a teenager girl’s brave encounters in British Sikh diaspora. Contributors are Vitor Lopes Andrade, Kimberly Berg, Amenah Jahangeer Chojoo, Gülnur Demirci, Sinan Doğan, Jaswina Elahi, Ruben Gawricharn, Lola Guyot, Nadine Hassouneh, Harjinder Singh Majhail and Enaya Hammad Othman.
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Immigrant and Ethnic-Minority Writers since 1945

Fourteen National Contexts in Europe and Beyond

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Edited by Wiebke Sievers and Sandra Vlasta

This study analyses how immigrant and ethnic-minority writers have challenged the understanding of certain national literatures and have markedly changed them. In other national contexts, ideologies and institutions have contained the challenge these writers pose to national literatures. Case studies of the emergence and recognition of immigrant and ethnic-minority writing come from fourteen national contexts. These include classical immigration countries, such as Canada and the United States, countries where immigration accelerated and entered public debate after World War II, such as the United Kingdom, France and Germany, as well as countries rarely discussed in this context, such as Brazil and Japan. Finally, this study uses these individual analyses to discuss this writing as an international phenomenon.




Sandra R.G. Almeida, Maria Zilda F. Cury, Sarah De Mul, Sneja Gunew, Dave Gunning, Kristina Iwata-Weickgenannt, Martina Kamm, Liesbeth Minnaard, Maria Oikonomou, Wenche Ommundsen, Marie Orton, Laura Reeck, Daniel Rothenbühler, Cathy J. Schlund-Vials, Wiebke Sievers, Bettina Spoerri, Christl Verduyn, Sandra Vlasta.
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Laura Reeck

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France provides an interesting case study with respect to migration and literature in that it has long been a host country to immigrants: its first waves of immigration in the nineteenth century were intra-European; its second waves from the mid-1950s forward were most significantly colonial, then postcolonial, and essentially African. However with virtually no immigrant literature to speak of from these first time periods, this chapter focuses specifically on postcolonial immigrant and ethnic-minority writing whose beginnings date to the early 1980s with beur literature by the sons and daughters of North African immigrants. Over time, both the groups of writers in this broad category and the field of scholarship on it have expanded and diversified. This chapter also highlights the tensions in falling between the ‘French’ and ‘Francophone’ designations and outside of the French literary establishment and university system as an object of study.

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Marie Orton

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Migration literature in Italy, like the social and demographic reality from which it originates, is highly contested. What began as a trickle of texts by migrants in the early 1990s became a flood in the following decades. More than 600 authors have published thousands of texts from all genres, branching out into theatre and film. While new writers are continually emerging, some encouraged by associazioni, on-line publications or literary prizes, the writings of 25 to 30 of the published authors are consistently discussed by scholars of migration literature, with half of those authors having been recognised with prestigious literary awards. The critical response within Italy has been divided, with the majority of critics resisting the inclusion of migration literature as part of the literary canon, while greater support has come from critics outside the country.

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Liesbeth Minnaard

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In the Netherlands, immigrant and ethnic-minority writing generally falls into three overlapping categories: postcolonial literature, Indies writing and what is nowadays mostly called migration literature – the work by writers whose presence in the Netherlands is somehow connected to the labour migration of the 1960s. This contribution describes the appearance of this literature, its initial exoticisation and the celebration of its (and its writers’) supposed ‘otherness’, the growth of a more serious interest in this work within the mainstream literary field as well as within academic circles and, finally, the acceptance of migrant and ethnic-minority writing, on the basis of its literary merits, as Dutch literature.

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Wiebke Sievers and Sandra Vlasta

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Austria is a latecomer in the field of research on immigrant and ethnic-minority literature. Only since the mid-1990s, with initiatives such as the literary prize schreiben zwischen den kulturen (writing between cultures) and the success of writers such as Vladimir Vertlib and Dimitré Dinev, both the general and the academic interest in immigrant authors have increased, also as a kind of counter movement against the growing xenophobia at the time. Research on immigrant authors in Austria broadly speaking draws on two strands of earlier analyses: first, it adopts concepts from the debate on immigrant authors in Germany. Second, it builds on ideas developed within English cultural studies. More recent works have pleaded for immigrant and ethnic-minority authors to no longer be treated as a separate category but as an intregral part of Austrian literature.

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Maria Oikonomou

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The momentous events of 1989 caused radical transformations and brought thousands of immigrant ‘others’ to Greece. Consequently, in the late 1990s and particularly since the year 2000, a literature of first-generation migrants as well as the first anthologies of ‘national’ or ‘micro-national’ communities emerged. In the beginning, this new literature received only sporadic attention. Meanwhile, Greek academia – especially the Departments of Foreign Languages and Literatures – has begun to explore the relations between migration and its literary impact. However, considering the diversity of immigrant authors whose texts are part of and influence the cultural sphere of Greece, the subject of migration literature still appears underrepresented in academic research (in contrast, there are several approaches to ‘Greek diaspora literature’ which deploy postcolonial models, feminism and translation studies). In general, the manifold character of immigrant writing has not yet found an established place in Greek literary studies.

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Cathy J. Schlund-Vials

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This chapter considers how past immigration restrictions and more recent migration policies have impacted the history and influenced the themes of ethnic American literature. As significant is the role of mid-twentieth-century social movements (such as the US Civil Rights Movement) in the making of what has now become an identifiable ethnic American literary canon in US literary studies. The chapter maps the development of and charts the politics embedded in this canon over the course of the twentieth and into the early twenty-first centuries. Key is an examination of various tensions within US literary studies; such tensions are made visible in the strategic inclusion of ethnic American authors via categories of racialised difference (e.g., as white ethnic, African American, Asian American, Latino/a, and Native writers). The chapter concludes with a critical consideration of ‘multiculturalism’ as a now dominant mode through which ethnic American authors are read, canonised, and evaluated.

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Sandra Regina Goulart Almeida and Maria Zilda Ferreira Cury

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This chapter analyses the historical background and the development of the field of immigrant writing in the context of Brazilian literature, as well as the theoretical and critical model that has supported this study. It maps out authors and critics who address the theme of immigration while it discusses the complex task of establishing the limits between a so-called immigration literature and Brazil’s own national literature. Although the image of the immigrant has been a persistent presence on Brazil’s literary scene from the outset, immigrant writers have been recognised over the years as national writers and regarded as an important element of the country’s cultural heritage. Only in recent years, in a more contemporary perspective, have the representation of the immigrant in literature and the analysis of this representation in literary criticism undergone a re-evaluation of the national paradigm that has thus far predominated.