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This monumental history of the organ in antiquity provides a wide overview of the technical development, use and recognition of the organ as an instrument. The interdisciplinary study relies on a comprehensive collection of literary works and archaeological monuments from Hellenistic, Roman, Jewish, Early Byzantine, Syrian and Western civilization ranging from 270 B.C. to 630 A.D., and discusses the survival of this rich heritage in Byzantium, the Islam and the Latin Middle Ages until about 1200.
The volume completes with an account of the relevant scholarship since the Renaissance and extensive indices. Fully documented and richly illustrated with numerous photographs and drawings, it will appeal to students and scholars of both the arts and the sciences. This history of the organ in antiquity will serve as an indispensable reference work for decades.

This handbook will appeal to students and scholars of both the arts and the sciences. It should interest all those concerned with the history of music and musical instruments, archaeologists, and historians of art and of science and technology.
Städtische Entwicklung und wirtschaftliche Bedingungen in ar-Raqqa und Ḥ̣arrān von der Zeit der beduinischen Vorherrschaft bis zu den Seldschuken
The period between 950 and 1150 A.D. is regarded as "turning point in the history of the Islamic Culture" from the Early Islamic to the Late Medieval civilization. What led to the urban decline in between and the later recovery? Ḥ̣arrān and al-Raqqa serve as paradigma for the development in Northern Syria and Northern Mesopotamia.
The collapse of the ʿAbbasid state left the region cornered between Buyids, Fatimids and Byzantines to the nomadic tribes not acquainted with urban culture. After 1086 A.D., measures undertaken by the Seljuqs in order to safeguard their hegemony led to a renaissance of cities inspite of permanent power struggles and the crusades. They based their rule on fortified places. The financing of the army led to the distribution of land as fiefs ( iqtaʿ) and subsequently to a dislodgement of nomads and a recultivation of former agricultural land. Cash money for the treasury was generated by skimming long distance trade; this in turn required public security on the roads. An analysis of the monetary circulation according to archaeological and literal evidence serves as measure for the economic recovery. A corpus of the coin production in al-Raqqa, ḥarrān and al-Ruha'/Edessa supplements the textual sources.
Author: Georges Tamer
This book fills the gap in the research of Leo Strauss (1899 - 1973) showing the influence of Alfarabi (870 - 950), Avicenna (980 - 1037) and Averroes (1126 - 1198) on his thought. The first part is historically-philologically oriented and contains neglected material where it presents a new approach to Leo Strauss's work. The second part discusses Strauss's reaction towards the crisis of modernity, stimulated by Islamic philosophy, as well as his nomic understanding of religion as the essential features of his political philosophy. Since Alfarabi is the Muslim Philosopher who had the greatest influence on Strauss's thought, his philosophy will also be analysed. This book offers the opportunity to discover an interesting aspect of the encounter of cultures, and contribute to a modern reception of Islamic philosophy.
Studien zu Vergebungsvorstellungen in urchristlichen und frühjüdischen Texten
This volume provides important new insights into the concept of "forgiveness" in early Christian literature.
In contrast to much of the existing literature on the notion of forgiveness, which usually focuses on the preconditions for being forgiven, the author sets out to describe the actual meanings and connotations of this concept during the period in which the New Testament was being formed.
In early Christian texts the notion of forgiveness is expressed in a variety of ways. On the basis of detailed analysis of a number of early Christian and contemporary Jewish prayers the author uncovers an array of different shades of meaning, which often can be obscured in modern translations. In so doing he demonstrates the importance of this complex of meanings for early Christians, not only as part of their soteriology, but in their overall theological outlook as well.
Begegnungen mit dem Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt. Festschrift für Heinz-Wolfgang Kuhn zum 65. Geburtstag
Authors: Fenske and Michael Becker
This volume combines articles of established scholars on Jewish and New Testament studies in honor of the New Testament scholar Prof.Dr. Heinz-Wolfgang Kuhn, Munich. The articles deal with various aspects of his work on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Archeology (Bethsaida), Jewish and New Testament Studies. Some of the contributions focus especially on aspects of eschatology in the time of the first century.
Traumtheorien zwischen Constantinus Africanus und Aristoteles
Author: Ricklin
From the example provided by theories on dreams, this study undertakes a reconstruction of the philosophical revolution embodied in the so-called 12th-century renaissance, which, from its origins in Arabic medical scholarship, led to the appropriation of the new Aristotle.
An analysis of theories at the beginning of the 12th century leads to an examination of William of Conches' dream theories, first proposed in his Macrobius Commentary, and which were later to find general acceptance.
The intellectual context leading to the translation in Byzantium of Aristotle's theories on dreams - together with its Arabic tradition - in Western-Latin Scholarship is examined through its first users: Alfred from Sareshel, David from Dinant, Radulfus de Longo Campo.
Author: Marcel Nieden
Who is Jesus Christ? The question is one of the central problems of Christian theology. This publication deals with the reflections, the Dominican theologian and Luther-Inquisitor Thomas de Vio Cajetan (†1534) has given as an answer in the early modern conflicting of scholasticism, humanism and reformation.
After clarifying the most important philosophical notions, Cajetan's understanding of the incarnation, the union of God and man in Jesus Christ, Christ's human nature and the biblical dates of Christ's life are investigated.
This volume gives a significant theological view of the state of christological theory-building at that time. The sections on the concept of persona and Christ's being are of interest to the historian of philosophy as well.
Berichtigt und ergänzt Herausgegeben mit Unterstützung von Carsten Burfeind
This collection of essays deals with the ancient Jewish romance called Joseph and Aseneth. It tells how Aseneth, daughter of an Egyptian priest, became the wife of Joseph, Pharaoh's viceroy, following her conversion to the God of the Hebrews. It is an instructive witness to Jewish diaspora theology and hence to the soil on which Christianity grew. The earliest form of the work is disputed. No full critical edition currently exists.
The volume assembles 13 studies previously published from 1961 to 1991 in German, English, and French, including a preliminary Greek text and the Serbo-Slavonic translation. They are accompanied by a fresh introduction, bibliography, and indexes.
The book documents 40 years of research and may serve as a basis for further study of the textual tradition and the theological and cultural importance of Joseph and Aseneth.
aus dem Dritten Band des Seyāḥatnāme. Edition, Übersetzung und Kommentar
Author: Korkut Bugday
The book of travels by Evliyā Çelebi, the Seyāḥatnāme, is one the richest works of Ottoman prose and belongs to the most important narrative sources for the history of the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century. In addition to numerous anecdotes it offers a plethora of information about different subjects and for most of the regions of the Ottoman Empire.
This book contains the edition of the travels made by Evliyā Çelebi in 1649-1650 from Syria to Istanbul. The main stops described on his journey are Urfa, Kayseri, Aksaray, Sivas and the plain of Muş.
The edition is given in Ottoman transcription with a German translation. In addition, it contains a list of contents according to the headlines of the text, two glossaries and an index.
The dictionary offers a complete compilation and a historical-comparative reflection of the hereditary lexis of the Kartvelian (South Caucasian) language family. It represents the latest stage of etymological research, contains a wealth of new lexical entries, corrections of earlier attempts and new reconstructions. The introduction provides a survey of general data of the four Kartvelian languages (Georgian, Mingrelian, Laz, Svan), characterizes the historical-comparative research in short and provides a detailed description of the system of regular phoneme correspondences. The main chapter presents the Kartvelian lexis in separate entries. The reconstructed forms of the root- and affix morphemes are listed in alphabetical order followed by instances of the Kartvelian languages. Each entry covers the phonological development of the lexical item from its original form to its present state and is supplemented by references.