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Author: Tiago de Luca

The world envisioned by the idea of world cinema is often tied to a conception of the planet in terms of the global circulation of films and networks of production, consumption and distribution. This article argues for the need to confront the world as a representational and aesthetic category in and of itself.

In: Studies in World Cinema
Author: Ewa Mazierska

This article examines the term ‘World Cinema’ by comparing it to ‘world literature’, as understood by two German thinkers of the Romantic period: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Karl Marx, who attributed universal appeal to it. It argues that World cinema, like world literature, testifies to the unequal distribution of economic and cultural power. World Cinema refers to cinemas of peripheries, cinematic production of ‘developing’ or Third World countries or non-Hollywood. Moreover, it does not encompass everything which is produced in the peripheries, but only that part, which lends itself to the gaze of (broadly understood) western scholars. Inevitably, such gaze privileges ‘canonical works’, which have already received national recognition and which due to their subjects, forms or ideologies, align themselves with the production in the centre. However, there are also films created in the peripheries which transcended national boundaries despite being openly local and even hostile to the idea of competing with other films on the global market, especially films made in Hollywood or modelled on Hollywood, such as Third Cinema, whose analysis concludes the discussion.

In: Studies in World Cinema

The article explores the concept of world cinema as an other to global cinema from a marketing perspective. Special attention is given to the way the world cinema universe is presented on video-on-demand platforms in Western markets. To demonstrate that the stories, scope and concerns of this universe vary according to marketing objectives, the article compares presentations on three platforms with contrasting business models and marketing algorithms: Netflix, Filmin, and FilmDoo. This leads to an important conclustion: presentations on platforms with an apparently more ethical business model are not necessarily more progressive and more advantageous to world cinema in terms of avoiding its “genre-fication”.

In: Studies in World Cinema
Author: William Brown

In this essay, I engage with the concept of ‘world cinema,’ identifying ways in which the term ‘world’ might always already come loaded with masculine and, in particular, white connotations, such that a turn to ‘world cinema’ runs the risk of reaffirming the centrality of masculinity and whiteness—at a time when, perhaps it is of utmost importance, for the sake of the continuation of human and other life, to challenge and perhaps even to negate that centrality. What applies to ‘world’ (which may be a shorthand for white masculinity) may also apply to cinema, and so it is that cinema and white masculinity alike that must be abandoned for human life on Earth to progress. To propose a turn to world cinema may thus not ‘work’ as a means to develop film studies in an ethical, more inclusive direction, since both world and cinema are by nature exclusive, rather than inclusive.

In: Studies in World Cinema

This paper argues for the political urgency of the project of World Cinema, and an understanding of World Cinema as a dynamic totality. Totality here is not a generic, macroscopic lens, but a system that accounts for the co-existence of all cinemas as well as the uneven power relationships that determine the relative visibility or invisibility of cinemas in the global system. This structural inequity, a condition that underlies the differentiated cinematic flows, is also a methodological ruse in that it can only point to unequal relationships in discourses that define the current conceptions of World Cinema. An awareness of totality, we argue, makes it possible to return to films themselves as nodal points from which to begin the mapping of World Cinema through its complex networks of financing, distribution, and its circuits of legitimation (film festivals, academic discourses) which shape world cinema as a body of knowledge.

In: Studies in World Cinema

Abstract

This essay considers the contrasting circumstances and perspectives on music making in New Spain (colonial Mexico) from the time of Charles V into the seventeenth century, highlighting the fragmentary nature of the evidence, its inextricable connection to the ritual of the Catholic Church, and the role of the religious orders. It questions the commonplace narrative of the magical power of European music among indigenous populations, an assertion made by period missionaries themselves, and looks into musical practices related to those in the European Low Countries. It also underscores the agency of individual musicians in a colonial musical environment and suggests that the surviving music repertoires primarily underscore the Tridentine Catholicism associated with King Philip II and his successors.

In: A Companion to Music at the Habsburg Courts in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Abstract

Instrumental music fulfilled significant roles throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in both the courts and cities of Central Europe, where it formed the sonic foundation for many musical functions and entertainments, especially the church services, balls, concerts, and table music that refreshed both body and spirit. This essay offers a survey of the genres and functions of instrumental music at the Central European Habsburg courts, including such topics as the varieties of dance music, instrumental music as recreation for Habsburg family members, changing musical styles, and the various contexts in which instrumental music was heard, including church services, weddings, banquets, academies, bathhouses, carnival celebrations, and the theatre.

In: A Companion to Music at the Habsburg Courts in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
Author: Jonas Pfohl

Abstract

The practice of music at the imperial Habsburg courts of the sixteenth century has been a subject of musicological scholarship since the second half of the nineteenth century. This chapter provides an overview of different areas of musical practice in the households of Emperors Ferdinand I, Maximilian II, Rudolph II, and Matthias. An outline of the development of the institution and its organizational structure is provided, using the court chapel of Ferdinand I as a case study, before discussing the changes and continuities in the musical personnel as a consequence of changes in government. Leading composers and performers are also discussed, including the compositional output by such Habsburg court musicians as Arnold von Bruck, Pieter Maessins, Jacobus Vaet, Philippe de Monte, Jacob Regnart, Carl Luython, and Lambert de Sayve. In addition to discussions of the institutional musical practice within the court chapel, a brief overview of the practice of instrumental and chamber music is also provided.

In: A Companion to Music at the Habsburg Courts in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Abstract

The patrimonial rupture that occurred in the line of Habsburg emperors upon the death of childless Emperor Matthias had significant consequences for the musical life at the imperial court. Matthias’s successor, his cousin Ferdinand II, had been raised at his father Archduke Charles II’s Inner Austrian court at Graz, a bastion of both the Counter-Reformation and of Italian music and culture. It was with this line that the Baroque came to the Habsburg courts, with an influx of Italian musicians (including Giovanni Priuli, Giovanni Valentini, Antonio Bertali, Giovanni Felice Sances, and Antonio Draghi) and the cultivation of cutting-edge musical styles and genres. Helping to nourish the growth of Italian Baroque culture were the Italian brides of Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III, both named Eleonora Gonzaga. This Italian music was put to use as a political weapon in the Habsburgs’ fervent attempts to re-Catholicize their realms, even in the face of the Thirty Years’ War. Unlike the previous line of Austrian emperors, for whom it was customary to dismiss their predecessor’s musicians, this line saw a continuity of chapel membership across the Emperors’ reigns, from Ferdinand II to Ferdinand III to Leopold I.

In: A Companion to Music at the Habsburg Courts in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
Author: Honey Meconi

Abstract

The marriage of Maximilian of Austria to Mary of Burgundy brought the famed Burgundian chapel into the Habsburg orbit and set the pattern for later Habsburg court chapels, including those of Maximilian’s son Philip the Fair and grandson Charles V. The chapel was of fluctuating membership, but its numbers typically increased in preparation for significant events, such as Philip’s two journeys to Spain. Aside from an organist, instrumentalists were not formally part of the chapel but were used at least occasionally with the singers – initially all adult males, but by the time of Charles V, incorporating boys as well. At irregular intervals, from 1469 into the reign of Philip II, ordinances governing the duties and behavior of the chapel were drawn up by successive rulers. These document a heavy round of liturgical duties for the chapel that typically included the performance of polyphony. Not surprisingly, the chapels of each ruler included various composers. Among these were Heinrich Isaac (designated specifically as a composer), Ludwig Senfl, and Paul Hofhaimer (for Maximilian); Pierre de La Rue, Alexander Agricola, Marbriano de Orto, and Gaspar van Weerbeke (for Philip); and Nicolas Gombert, Thomas Crecquillon, and Cornelius Canis (for Charles). Each chapel was thereby supplied with compositions in the latest style by leading contemporaries for use both in the liturgy and for ceremonial occasions. The chapel thus served as an extension and glorification of the ruler’s power and majesty.

In: A Companion to Music at the Habsburg Courts in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries