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Though references to Greek myths will hardly surprise the reader of western European literature, the reception history of Greek mythology is far richer and includes such lesser known traditions as the Armenian one. Greek myths were known to medieval Armenians through translations of late classical and early Christian writings and through the original works of Armenian authors. However, accessing them in their Armenian incarnations is no easy task. References to them are difficult to find as they are scattered over the vast medieval Armenian written corpus. Furthermore, during the process of translation, transmission, retelling, and copying of Greek mythical stories, Greek names, words, and plot details frequently became corrupted.
In this first-of-its-kind study, Gohar Muradyan brings together all the known references to ancient Greek myths (154 episodes) in medieval Armenian literature. Alongside the original Armenian passages and, when extant, their Greek originals, she provides annotated English translations. She opens the book with an informative introduction and concludes with useful appendices listing the occurrences of Greek gods, their Armenian equivalents, images, altars, temples, and rites, as well as Aesop’s fables and the Trojan War.
The Philosophical Critique of Christianity in Late Antiquity and the Enlightenment
The present study, for the first time, provides a comparative analysis of the objections raised against Christianity by late antique pagan philosophers (esp. Celsus in Alethes logos, Porphyry in Contra Christianos, and Julian the Apostate in Contra Gali-laeos) and Enlightenment philosophers and freethinkers and examines the impact of pagan thinking on the critique of Christianity in the 16th to 18th centuries – in particular, on discussions concerning the authority of the Bible, biblical exegesis, the Christian concept of faith, religious coercion and the uniformity of faith, the belief in miracles, and the Christ-ian understanding of morality.
This volume focuses on Christianity in Attica and its metropolis, Athens, from Paul’s initial visit in the first century up to the closing of the philosophical schools under the reign of Justinian I in the sixth century. Underscoring the relevance of epigraphic resources and the importance of methodological sophistication in analysing especially archaeological evidence, it readdresses many questions on the basis of a larger body of evidence and aims to combine literary, epigraphic, and archaeological evidence in order to create the outlines of a narrative of the rise and development of Christianity in the area. It is the first interdisciplinary study on the local history of Christianity in the area.
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This volume contains fifteen essays in honor of L. Michael White, whose work has been influential in exploring the social histories of ancient Jews and Christians within the Graeco-Roman world. Following an introduction that highlights some of White’s main scholarly contributions, the essays are grouped into three topic areas: Paul and his Legacy, Social Relations, and Material Culture. The essays are united by an interest in reconstructing the social worlds of ancient Jews and Christians through careful analysis of literary sources and material culture in their most precise ancient contexts.
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Recent decades have seen the publication of several papyri devoted to ancient epigram, one of the most successful poetic forms of antiquity. Of these the most enigmatic is the Yale papyrus codex; its date, authorship and content have been vigorously debated. The codex allows us a glimpse of the wealth of material now lost to us and enriches our perception of the genre’s dynamism, its thematic richness, and the process of anthologisation and dissemination. This volume offers the first collection of essays by experts in the genre dedicated to this fascinating and elusive text of the imperial period.
This is a ground-breaking philosophical-historical study of the work of Galen of Pergamum. It contains four case-studies on (1) Galen’s remarkable and original thoughts on the relation between body and soul, (2) his notion of human nature, (3) his engagement with Plato’s Timaeus, (4) and black bile and melancholy. It shows that Galen develops an innovative view of human nature that problematizes the distinction between body and soul.
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Ammianus Marcellinus composed a history of the Roman empire from 96 AD to 378 AD, focusing on the mid-fourth century during which he served in the army. His experience as a soldier during this period provides crucial realia of warfare, while his knowledge of literature, especially the genre of historiography, enabled him to imbue his narrative with literary flair. This book explores the tension between Ammianus’ roles as soldier and author, examining how his military experience affected his history, and conversely how his knowledge of literature affected his descriptions of the Roman army.
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If you read a work by Cicero or Seneca and then open The Pilgrimage of Egeria, Augustine, or Gregory of Tours, you will soon notice that Late Latin authors quote authorities differently. They provide a perfect example of synthesising two potentially conflicting traditions – “classical” and “biblical”. This book examines how the system of direct discourse marking developed over the centuries. It focuses on selecting marking means, presents the dynamics of change and suggests factors that might have been at play. The author guides the reader on the path that goes from the Classical prevalence of inquit to the Late innovative mix of marking words including the very classical inquit, an increased use of dico, the newly recruited ait, and dicens, influenced by biblical translations. The book suggests that Late authors tried to make reading and understanding easier by putting quotative words before quotations and increasing the use of redundant combinations (e.g. “he answered saying”).
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For more than fifty years the standard debates about Roman Imperialism were written more or less entirely in terms of male agency, male competition, and male participation. Not only have women been marginalized in these narratives as just so much collateral damage but there has been little engagement with gender history more widely, with the linkages between masculinity and warfare, with the representation of relations of power in terms of gender differentials, with the ways social reproduction entangled the production of gender and the production of empire. This volume explores how we might gender Roman Imperialism.
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This book offers critical analyses of the dynamic relation between legal regulations, institutions and economic performance in the Roman world. It studies how law and legal thought affected economic development, and vice versa. Inspired by New Institutional Economics scholars the past decades used ancient law to explain economic growth. There was, however, no natural selection process directing legal changes towards macro-economic efficiency. Ancient rulers and jurists modified institutions to serve or safeguard particular interests—political, social, or economic. Nevertheless both economic performance and legal scholarship peaked at unprecedented levels. These were momentous historical developments. How were they related?