Alligators were perceived as dangerous by early settlers in Florida, and they also reflected the untamed and potentially untameable Florida wilderness. By the 20th century, alligator farms capitalized on the thrill of alligator encounters in controlled theme park experiences. Alligators are tamed in the current farm context and valued increasingly for the products that can be derived from their bodies. This anthrozoological investigation of perceptions of Florida alligators explores how farms define alligators and why visitors might accept these particular constructed images of alligators, concluding with a wider view to consider these perceptions of farmed animals in relation to the idea of the nuisance alligator. The discussion is framed by multi-species studies that rest on notions of embodiment and attentiveness, which in this case push the importance of alligator experience and agency to the foreground.
We present the results of our analysis of the sentiments of guardians in Spain following the death of a companion animal, as well as their potential use of cemeteries/crematoriums, based on a personal survey that was completed by 197 guardians. Factor analysis revealed the existence of three dimensions. The first focused on emotional reactions following a companion animal’s death. The second considered personal relationships that developed between guardians and their companion animals. Finally, the third focused on benefits or value offered by a companion animal. Four segments were obtained by cluster analysis. The largest segment had the strongest intention of using/reusing cemetery or cremation services (3.2 out of 5). It was also the only segment which placed value on emotional reactions upon a companion’s death. The results showed that a strong bond between guardians and companion animals was associated with a higher probability that burial or cremation services would be used.
Attachment theory, proposed in the 1950s to understand the development of parent-child relationships, is often applied to human–companion animal relationships. I argue the application of this paradigm to test nonhuman animals’ social bonds with humans infantilizes mature animals and has a detrimental impact on animal welfare. The premise is that Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test is inappropriate to investigate the emotional ties between domestic animals and humans. Instead, I propose an alternative theory, that dogs form mature social bonds with their guardians, and that the phenomenon known as separation anxiety is the result either of the frustration of mature adult group behaviors, or an overdependency fostered by the guardian. Rather than view mature dogs as comparable to human infants in their social relationships, we should perceive them as socially and emotionally mature at adulthood and shift the focus from attachment-based paradigms to the behavioral ecology and cognition of companion animals.
A topic in contemporary political philosophy that has received substantial attention recently is whether minorities have the right to mistreat nonhuman animals. Mostly the debate is focused on minority practices in the West, such as Muslim religious slaughtering. However, other minority contexts, especially Iberian ones, have been largely ignored. In this article, I place the Portuguese case study at the center of political philosophy debates and assess whether this cultural practice ought to be banned. I do this by looking at four arguments routinely used in these debates. These arguments are that Portuguese bullfighting ought to be allowed because it has an economic role in the community, it helps address social prejudice, it promotes friendship and, and allowing it is a way to be legally consistent. I reject the four arguments and defend that bullfighting, in the Portuguese case, should be banned.
I review biologist Chris D. Thomas’s book (2017) Inheritors of the Earth: How Nature is Thriving in an Age of Extinction and discuss its exposition and prescriptions. Thomas presents a fantastic exposition of the contemporary scientific literature documenting the biological gains mediated by human impacts on the nonhuman world. However, his prescriptions for a conservation ethic leave much to be desired. Thomas employs a philosophically narrow, positivist, and egoist approach to what is relevant when dealing with other sentient, sapient, and often social nonhuman beings. This culminates in an explicitly anthropocentric ethic that dismisses our moral obligations to nonhumans, both as individuals and collectives.
This article discusses the economic development of Belarus, which took the gradualist approach in transition. Rejecting the Washington Consensus—based reform, Belarus experienced a quick recovery during the 1990s and rapid economic growth during the early to mid-2000s. The government took various policy measures to ensure the structure of a centrally planned economy. These measures included price control, emphasis on the large state-owned enterprises, restrictions on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, and tariff protection. Facing limits to economic growth since the late 2000s, the government has undertaken liberalization measures including price decontrol, promotion of small and medium-sized enterprises, derestriction of FDI inflows, and trade liberalization. In the meantime, realizing the role of industrialization, it placed an emphasis on development of the manufacturing sector by lowering tariff rates imposed on capital goods. Finally, the article provides policy implications for the other developing and transition economies pursuing economic development in light of the experience of Belarus.
In this article I aim to critically clarify the spatial dimensions of the notion of resilience, particularly in economic policies important for development. The EU’s policies towards Africa, specifically the External Investment Plan (EIP) and the European Investment Bank’s Economic Resilience Initiative (ERI), provide an empirical illustration. Within International Relations, theorizations have sometimes lacked logical clarity, risked overemphasizing the local factors influencing resilience, and undertheorizing the external ones. Resilience is not wholly determined at a given local scale. There are also influences external to the scale, including other resilience’s scales. There may be tradeoffs between scales. Building upon local resources boosts resilience, but understanding the local as decontextualized does not. External help to local populations and bearing due responsibility support resilience, but external interventionism and/or one scale excessively depending on another do not. The EIP’s and the ERI’s problems illustrate those visions of the external and local that affect resilience rather negatively.
Diasporic communities have historically maintained—either actively or passively—their ethnonational identities, be it in the case of classical diasporas such as the Jews or Armenians or the case of more modern diasporas such as the Indians or other South Asians. However, the ethnonational identities of diasporic communities have strengthened significantly in recent times as a result of the global forces such as the Internet that created and recreated the existing and newer ways of transnationalism and ethnonationalism. The study of the Indian diaspora is inherent because of the fact that these global forces have drastically changed the ethnonational identity of Indians in the diaspora. There are a plethora of factors that played an important role in this process of transformation. This article tries to examine two of the most significant factors that strengthened the ethnonational identity, such as the dynamic changes in the Indian government policy towards diaspora and the role of the Internet that facilitates the youth to play a prominent role in this neo-diaspora.