The Bokujinkai—or ‘People of the Ink’—was a group formed in Kyoto in 1952 by five calligraphers, Morita Shiryū, Inoue Yūichi, Eguchi Sōgen, Nakamura Bokushi, and Sekiya Yoshimichi. The avant-garde calligraphy movement they launched aspired to raise calligraphy to the same level of international prominence as abstract painting. To realize this vision, the Bokujinkai established creative collaborations with artists from European Art Informel and American Abstract Expressionism, and soon began sharing exhibition spaces with them in New York, Paris, Tokyo, and beyond. By focusing on this exceptional moment in the history of Japanese calligraphy, I show how the Bokujinkai rerouted the trajectory of global abstract art and attuned foreign audiences to calligraphic visualities and narratives.
Robert L. Rankin was a seminal figure in late 20th and early 21st centuries in the field of Siouan linguistics. His knowledge, like the papers he produced, was voluminous. We have gathered here a representation of his work that spans over thirty years. The papers presented here focus on both the languages Rankin studied in depth (Quapaw, Kansa, Biloxi, Ofo, and Tutelo) and comparative historical work on the Siouan language family in general. While many of the papers included have been previously published, one third of them have never before been made public including a grammatical sketch and dictionary of Ofo and his final paper on the place of Mandan in the larger Siouan family.
This study focuses on the Brazilian species of the genus Purenleon Stange (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). A total of five species are herein reported to Brazil: Purenleon clavatus (Navás), Purenleon fernandezi Miller & Stange (first record for Brazil), Purenleon cautus (Walker) comb. n., and two new species: Purenleon limeiraisp. n. and Purenleon rafaelisp. n. The taxonomical status of other two species was reevaluated: Formicaleo bipunctatus Navás was synonymized under P. cautus and Feinerus nebulosus Navás was revalidated and transferred to Purenleon. A key to the South American species of Purenleon is also presented.
Nine new species of the collembolan genus Salina MacGillivray from South America are described and illustrated. Two Neotropical species were recorded for the first time from Brazil: S. dedoris Mari-Mutt and S. tristani Denis. Salina was previously known to occur in three Brazilian states, and this is now updated to include 19 states with 12 recorded species. A new proposal of morphological character description and illustration, and an identification key for the celebensis group are provided. A hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among 34 species of Salina (about 50% of the 72 described species) allowed three main pursuits: (a) a reevaluation of Salina species groups; (b) the first explicit interpretation of how morphological characters of these springtails may have changed during the course of the diversification of the taxon; and (c) an evaluation of the historical biogeographic connections of Salina, with an emphasis on the celebensis group distribution to the New World.
The tribe Sisyphini sensu strictoMulsant, 1842 comprises only three genera, the widespread SisyphusLatreille, 1807 and NeosisyphusMüller, 1942, and the Mauritius endemic, NesosisyphusVinson, 1946. In southern Africa, Sisyphus and Neosisyphus are represented by five species groups in each genus. Together, they comprise a total of 33 valid species, of which six are new: Sisyphus auricomussp. n;Sisyphus australissp. n; Sisyphus bicuariensissp. n; Sisyphus inconspicuussp. n; Sisyphus swazisp. n; and Neosisyphus tembyisp. n. A further Southern African species, Sisyphus crispatusGory, 1833, is proposed as a nomen dubium. Sisyphus natalensisBalthasar, 1968 (syn. n), and Sisyphus bornemisszanusEndrödi, 1983 (pars) (syn. n) are made synonyms of Sisyphus sordidusBoheman, 1857. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for Sisyphus costatus (Thunberg, 1818); Sisyphus seminulumGerstaecker, 1871; Sisyphus nanniscusPéringuey, 1901; Sisyphus transvaalensisPéringuey 1901; Neosisyphus spinipes (Thunberg, 1818) and Neosisyphus barbarossa (Wiedemann, 1823). Diagnoses, photographs of habitus and male genitalia, lists of examined material and distribution maps are presented for all species. An identification key to the southern African sisyphine species is provided.
The study focused on the behaviour of sit-and-wait antlion larvae in interspecific interactions. Antlion larvae usually occur in clusters with a high density of individuals; therefore, competition can be intense. We observed two abundant antlion species, E. nostras and M. formicarius, which co-occur in some habitats. In a simple habitat choice experiment where substrates differed according to sand particle size, we found that E. nostras exhibited dominance over M. formicarius. Most E. nostras larvae remained in the more suitable substrate and constructed pits, while all the M. formicarius larvae moved out of the suitable area, and did not build pits. In the second experiment, we observed the characteristics of the pit-fall traps and scored the occurrence of larval relocation in relation to interactions and in the control group, where larvae were kept in containers separately. In interactions, the larvae of E. nostras constructed smaller pits, but pit enlargement was greater in comparison to the control group. M. formicarius larvae constructed similar sized pits in both groups; however, enlargement was greater in the control group. Relocation of larvae occurred only during interactions. In direct interactions, we found 15 behavioural patterns, which are described in detail for the first time. In the presence of a competitor, larvae showed intense territorial behaviour. We recorded several behavioural patterns during larval confrontation, and interestingly, intraguild predation rarely occurred. In most cases, E. nostras larvae outcompete M. formicarius, which was evident from the larger pits and the rate of pit-construction.