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Various Authors & Editors

Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 2: Index to the Secret and Cabinet Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1825-1839

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

Dutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 3: Index to the Secret and Cabinet Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1901-1958

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

<>bDutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

Nineteenth-Century Dutch-Japanese / Japanese-Dutch Manuscript Dictionaries and Related Documents: The J.K. van den Broek Collection

edited by Dr. Herman J. Moeshart

on microfiche

Introduction
Dr. Jan Karel van den Broek (1814-1865) was a Dutch physician who spent four years in Japan on the island of Deshima near Nagasaki from 1853-1857. During these four years he instructed many Japanese pupils in the use of western technology and science. In this period and earlier the Japanese rangakusha (students of western sciences) made extensive use of imported Dutch books and magazines as sources. The need for a teacher who could explain the texts and solve problems for the Japanese technicians was great. Van den Broek, who had been one of the foremost members of the learned society Tot Nut en Vergenoegen [For benefit and pleasure] in the town of Arnhem, played the role of a living encyclopedia in Japan.

Van den Broek in Japan
From August 1853 till November 1857 he made himself indispensable to the director of the Dutch trading post at Deshima by his demonstrations for high placed Japanese visitors and even more so by repairing the royal present to the shogun of Japan - an electromagnetic telegraph that arrived damaged there in 1854. Year after year the number of his Japanese pupils and the number of questions posed by the Japanese grew steadily.

Origin of the dictionary project
In December 1854, he started to compile Japanese-Dutch and Dutch-Japanese dictionaries. His motivation for undertaking this project, which would keep him occupied for the rest of his life, was a quarrel with one of the Japanese interpreters. At the request of the Daimyo of Hizen, Nabeshima Naomasa, Van den Broek, gave a talk on the harbour defences of Nagasaki, explained that the fortresses this daimyo had erected were of little value in defending against an attack by a modern western fleet. The interpreter, fearing angering his lord, did not want to translate this into Japanese. When ordered all the same to translate Van den Broek's words, the ruler was not angered but simply asked Van den Broek to explain what was wrong. Van den Broek concluded from this incident that his words were not always rendered correctly into Japanese and started the compilation of his dictionaries. He continued to work on them the rest of his life and at his death in 1865, he left a legacy of many Japanese books brought back from Japan and a great number of large-format manuscript volumes in which he compiled his dictionary and kept his notes and drafts. This work was never to be published. The Japanese-Dutch dictionary was completed before his death, but he did not live to finish the Dutch- Japanese volumes.

Dictionaries rediscovered
After his death his books, notes and the manuscripts of his dictionaries found their way to the municipal library at Arnhem where Herman Moeshart rediscovered them in 2001.

Importance for research
Among the dictionaries made by the Dutch in Japan those of Van den Broek merit a special place. He was the only one who compiled a complete Japanese-Dutch dictionary to which he added a thick volume with "conversations", illustrating the use of Japanese and providing a conversation handbook for the Dutch in Japan. The availability of Van den Broek's work in microform will be of great interest to students of the development of the Japanese language in the nineteenth century and historical philology, among others.

Other works in the collection
In addition to the manuscripts of the dictionaries, the Van den Broek collection also includes: a 13-volume Chinese encyclopedia from 1705; an eighteenth- or nineteenth-century Chinese dictionary; an illustrated Japanese guide to flower arranging; a similarly illustrated guide to martial arts; a Japanese book of epigrams; a nineteenth-century Japanese guide to "rangaku"; an 1861 Japanese map of Edo; and a few other assorted volumes.

Sirtjo Koolhof and Geert Oostindie

De wereldgeschiedenis wordt wel beschreven als een lange aaneenschakeling van gewelddadigheden. Bezien vanuit deze eenzijdige invalshoek vormt de Nederlandse koloniale geschiedenis bepaald geen uitzondering. Onthutst verhaalden de eerste ontdekkingsreizigers en kolonisten over de gewelddadige gewoontes die zij aantroffen in wat spoedig Nederlandse bezittingen zouden zijn. Om die kolonisatie mogelijk te maken en vervolgens hun macht blijvend te vestigen, namen zij vervolgens hun toevlucht tot 'legitiem geweld'dat niet zelden neerkwam op brute onderdrukking. In een dertigtal fragmenten geeft Koloniaal dodenkabinet een beeld van deze geschiedenis. We lezen hoe pioniers als Padtbrugge en Valentijn met afschuw berichten over koppensnellerij en kannibalisme in de Molukken en Minahasa, hoe het koloniaal gezag meedogenloos slavenopstanden in Suriname en Curaçao onderdrukt en ten koste van enorme verliezen onder de nieuwe onderdanen buitengewesten als Bali en Atjeh onderwerpt, hoe voortdurend verzet en de twintigste-eeuwse onafhankelijkheidsstrijd nieuw geweld oproept. Daarnaast zijn er verhalen opgenomen over de soms wrede natuur, die met aardbevingen, vulkaanuitbarstingen, wilde dieren en vreselijke ziektes talloze slachtoffers maakt. Ook wordt er verhaald van wilde pogroms, van crimes passionels en van publieke berechtingen van vermeende misdadigers. Vrijwel alle verhalen zijn ontleend aan ooggetuigenverslagen of ten minste in de tijd zelf opgeschreven documenten. Daarnaast zijn fragmenten uit de mondelinge overlevering opgenomen. Slechts een enkel fragment is ontleend aan fictie. In alle gevallen geldt dat de fragmenten mede zijn uitgekozen op hun leesbaarheid voor een 21ste-eeuwer. Zo is Koloniaal dodenkabinet een even huiveringwekkend als leesbaar memento geworden voor drieëneenhalve eeuw Nederlandse aanwezigheid in 'Oost en West'.

Manhafte heren en rijke erfdochters

Het voorgeslacht van E. du Perron op Java

Series:

Kees Snoek

In ieder geval is waar, dat ik in Holland altijd zo'n beetje de 'lastige vreemdeling' bleef. Dat is eigenlik ook wel logies: mijn ouders waren bijna volbloed Fransen en verder 'koloniaal patriciaat', wat weer iets anders is dan hollandse bourgeoisie.
Dit schreef E. du Perron (1899-1940) aan de politieke balling Soetan Sjahrir in een poging om zichzelf sociaal-cultureel te situeren. In dit boek wordt de kleurrijke geschiedenis beschreven van de Du Perrons op Java, die begint met de stamvader Jean Roch du Perron (1756/7-1806). Als 'cadet en bombardier' in dienst getreden van de VOC, eindigde hij als kapitein van de genie. Binnen enkele generaties wisten zijn nakomelingen door te dringen tot de hoogste kringen van de koloniale samenleving. Dat was voor een deel de eigen verdienste van deze 'manhafte heren', voor een ander deel hadden zij deze gerieflijke status te danken aan hun verbintenis met 'rijke erfdochters'.
In dit boek ontvouwt zich in zeven hoofdstukken een waaier van relaties en worden witte plekken ingevuld in de geschiedenis van Indische families. Dankzij Tim Timmers (1949), nazaat van E. du Perrons tante Louise Henriëtte, zijn diverse unieke documenten uit familiebezit in de tekst verwerkt. Tevens zijn er veel onbekende portretten opgenomen van de Du Perrons, P.H. Menu en aangetrouwde verwanten.

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 1. Documents from the Secret Archives of the General Secretariat of the Netherlands Indies Government and the Cabinet of the Governor General

Introduction
The end of the Second World War in August 1945 sounded the death knell of Dutch colonialism in Indonesia. The proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia by Sukarno and Hatta on 17 August 1945 ushered in a confusing and complicated period of anticolonial struggle, civil war, military action by the Dutch and negotiations between the parties that ultimately led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic on 27 December 1949.

New series
This collection forms the first part in a new series of micro-publications on the end of Dutch colonialism in Asia being planned and carried out in cooperation with the National Archives in The Hague. It can be regarded as the continuation of the now dormant series "War and Decolonization" by MMF Publications, with which it does not overlap. The five parts of that series are also available from Moran Micropublications.

Focus
The new series has as theme "the Dutch political conflict with the Republic of Indonesia" not only in the pivotal years 1945-1949, but also extending into the early 1960s in order to cover the process of decolonization of Netherlands New Guinea, over which the Dutch had refused to transfer sovereignty at the end of 1949. It will also reach back into the 1930s and the years of war and occupation (1942-1945) to provide the necessary background to the crisis that ensued on 17 August 1945.

Part 1: Secret Archive
In consultation with archivists at the National Archives the first documents chosen for micropublication are from the Secret Archive of the General Secretariat of the Netherlands Indies Government and the Cabinet of the Governor-General (in Dutch: Geheim archief van de Algemene Secretarie en van het kabinet van de gouverneur-generaal).

The General Secretariat
The General Secretariat was the administrative apparatus that assisted the Governor-general in his task from 1816 until its dissolution in 1950. Its archives, formed in Indonesia, contain a virtually complete account of the
political activities and statecraft of the Netherlands Indies Government. The secret archives of the Algemene Secretarie were brought to the Netherlands after Indonesian independence and are now in the National Archives. The public part of its archive was transferred to the Republic of Indonesia and is housed in the Arsip Nasional in Jakarta.

Documents
The documents reproduced in the present collection concern the "Political conflict with the Republic of Indonesia" from the end of the Second World War until the transfer of sovereignty at the end of 1949. They trace the development of events in great detail and allow the study of this conflict in all its aspects. The documents include many secret intelligence reports, captured Republican papers, political memoranda and many others.

Inventory
The collection has been completely inventoried by archivists of the National Archives and is now available from Moran Micropublications. The inventory is available for consultation free of charge from Moran and is also posted on our website (see right column).

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 2-4: Papers of A.J. Piekaar (1933-1955 [1959]): Sumatra

Short biography
Arie Johannes Piekaar was born in Rotterdam in 1910. He studied Indology at the University of Leiden, obtaining a doctorate there in 1933 with a dissertation entitled Moederland en Overzeesche Financiën, studie van vergelijkend staatsrecht (Mother country and Overseas Finances, a study in comparative constitutional law). From 1934 until 1949 he worked for the Dutch colonial administration in the Indies, beginning his career in the Residency of Aceh in Sumatra, where he perfected his knowledge of the local language. He was interned during the Japanese occupation of World War II (1942-1945). After the war he served in Borneo and the “Great East” ( Grote Oost) before becoming secretary to the High Representative of the Crown from 1948 until the transfer of sovereignty in December 1949. From 1950 until he repatriated in 1953 he worked for the Netherlands High Commission in Jakarta. After his return to the Netherlands he held various positions at the Ministry of Education, rising to become a director-general. In addition, he was a member of the boards of several organizations, especially the Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde (KITLV) (Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies) in Leiden. Piekaar was a widely acknowledged expert on Aceh and his book Atjeh en de oorlog met Japan (Aceh and the War with Japan) (The Hague: Van Hoeve, 1949) is regarded as a standard work. He died in 1990.

The papers
The papers micropublished here concern Piekaar’s career in the Netherlands Indies and early independent Indonesia until the mid-1950s. The collection is divided into two parts
• the first covering his work and developments in Aceh from 1933 until 1953
• and the second relating to the process of decolonization more generally and the first years of the 1950s.
There are many documents in the Indonesian and Acehnese languages, including folk tales.
For Aceh there are
• extensive materials on the Japanese invasion and occupation, including
• the structure of Japanese rule
• the internment camps
• economic policy
• and the capitulation and its aftermath
• on religious movements during the war and the struggle between secular and religious powers in the postwar period
• and on economic policy and political developments after the transfer of sovereignty.
The second part of the collection includes
• memos from Piekaar to the High Representative of the Crown and his staff, 1948-1949
• missives sent by the High Representative, with appendices, 1949
• notes containing advice and recommendations to the High Representative in reaction to documents received, 1949
• incoming and outgoing correspondence after the transfer of sovereignty, 1950-1953
• proceedings of the Indonesian parliament, 1953-1954 and others.

Various Authors & Editors

The Indonesian Hajj
Part 1: The Archive of the Dutch Consulate (later Legation) at Jiddah (Jeddah), Saudi Arabia, 1872-1950

Historical background
By the early 1870s thousands of Muslim pilgrims were traveling each year from the Netherlands East Indies to Mecca to perform the hajj , one of the principal duties of every follower of Islam. The voyage went by sea from the archipelago to the port of Jiddah on the Red Sea coast in the Hejaz region of Arabia, at the time a province of the Ottoman Empire. The desirability of exercising control over this vast movement of colonial subjects coupled with the possibility of increased trade through the Red Sea brought about by the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 prompted the Dutch ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Colonies to open a consulate there. The request made to the Ottoman authorities in Constantinople was granted and in June of 1872 the first consul presented his credentials to the local Turkish authorities at Jiddah and the Dutch flag was hoisted to a ceremonial 21-gun salute.
Trading opportunities soon proved disappointing and the primary task of the con¬sulate for the next eight decades became protecting, caring for, administering and, signifi¬cantly, monitoring the political activities of, the many Indonesian pilgrims visiting the holy places. It was no accident that the first diplomat to hold this post was well acquainted with the situation in the East Indies and with the Indonesian language.

Dutch policy
The famous Dutch Arabist and scholar of Islam, Snouck Hurgronje, who himself visited Arabia in 1884-1885 and entered Mecca as a Muslim convert, advised the Netherlands Indies government to appoint Indonesian personnel, who as Muslims would have access to Mecca itself, barred to non-Muslims. While tolerant of Islam as a religion, his constant counsel as a colonial adviser over many years was to repress political agitation. Thus in 1885 Consul de Vicq hired the Javanese Raden Abu Bacr as interpreter and scribe. He was able to accompany the pilgrims to Mecca and furnish the Dutch with all sorts of information about people and the Indonesian Muslim colony resident there.

Medical care
In addition to politics, the medical care of the pilgrims was a major concern of the Dutch authorities and here too it was the practice to appoint Indonesian personnel. An Indonesian medical practice was established at Jiddah and transferred permanently to Mecca in 1927. The importance of this service can be seen by the fact that more than 20,000 patients were being treated there by 1938.

Turbulent period
Initially the consulate's purview only extended to the port of Jiddah itself, but was expanded in 1894 to include the Hejaz and Yemen. Later a vice-consulate was also established in Mecca. The breakup of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of World War I led to the creation of mandate territories in the region, such as Iraq, and the creation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In 1930 the Jiddah consulate was elevated to the rank of legation and in 1932 its jurisdiction was enlarged once again. With Indonesian independence at the end of 1949, care for the pilgrims became the responsibility of the new government and Dutch representation at Jiddah ended.

The archive: The infrastructure of the hajj
The archive of the consulate and later legation contains correspondence and other documents, such as reports, registers and statistical surveys from 1872 until 1950 in Dutch, but also in Arabic, Malay, French and English.
They can be used to study the entire infrastructure of the hajj in all its facets, including:
• transportation of the pilgrims by sea and later by air
• health and medical needs of the pilgrims
• public health and sanitation during the hajj
• treatment and prevention of disease and epidemics, quarantines
• medical personnel
• births and deaths during the pilgrimage, inheritances
• housing and food supplies
• religious currents and religious education
• legal and financial problems of the pilgrims
• political activities
• provenance and background of the Indonesian pilgrims
• pilgrims from other countries, especially from British India, Malaya and Singapore
• international cooperation in matters relating to the hajj, especially public health
• Dutch and Indonesian consular personnel
• relations with the authorities in Jiddah and Mecca
• the Java colony at Mecca

Political and economic history of the region
More generally, the archive also contains reports and other documents that can be used for the study of the political situation in the Middle East in this tumultuous period and its economic exploitation, including documents on slavery in the region, petroleum extraction, infrastructural development, such as road building and separate files kept for Aden, Eritrea, Hadhramaut, Iraq and Yemen.

Inventory
An inventory in Dutch with an introduction in English provides access to the archive, which is being micropublished in its entirety with the exception of a number of files under embargo for reasons of privacy.

Series:

Edited by Brad Gregory

This volume is a collection of prison writings by seven Dutch Mennonite martyrs executed between 1569 and 1592, first published in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, but until now almost entirely neglected even by specialists in the Radical Reformation. Included are some forty-nine letters, fifteen songs, a poem, a treatise, and six Tafereelen ("tableaux"), plus four letters written to the martyrs, several editorial prefaces and introductions, and several archival documents pertaining to the execution of the martyrs. An introduction contextualizes the writings and explains the reasons for their exclusion from the Mennonite martyrological tradition. This collection adds to the primary sources pertaining to Anabaptist martyrs, Dutch Mennonites, and the Radical Reformation, supplementing van Braght's Martyrs' Mirror.

Published as Kerkhistorische Bijdragen, Documenta Anabaptistica, vol. 8

Een vorst onder de taalgeleerden

Herman Neubronner van der Tuuk, taalafgevaardigde voor Indië van het Nederlandsch

Kees Groeneboer