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Editor: Hubert Bazin
The Ricci Dictionary of Chinese Law (in Simplified Chinese) includes approximately 24,000 Chinese legal terms used by Chinese and foreign lawyers in mainland China, transcribed into pinyin and translated into English and French. The Dictionary was prepared between 2006 and 2018 by a team of French and Chinese lawyers, as well as American, Canadian, English and Australian contributors, under the guidance of the Ricci Association, in order to complete and supplement the “ Grand dictionnaire Ricci de la langue chinoise” (also named “Grand Ricci”, a dictionary published in 2001 encompassing more than 300,000 terms). The Ricci Dictionary of Chinese Law aims to provide a tool for translators of Chinese legal documents, but it is also aimed at researchers, academics, students, attorneys and lawyers who have an interest in Chinese law.
This dictionary is also available online and in Traditional Chinese with English and French translations.

Le Dictionnaire Ricci du droit chinois (édition en caractères simplifiés) comprend environ 24.000 termes chinois utilisés par les juristes chinois et étrangers en Chine continentale, transcrits en pinyin et traduits en anglais et en français. Cet ouvrage a été préparé entre 2006 et 2018 par une équipe d’avocats et juristes principalement français et chinois, mais aussi américains, canadiens, britanniques et australiens, pour enrichir le Grand dictionnaire Ricci de la langue chinoise, connu sous le nom de « Grand Ricci », qui traduit plus de 300,000 termes et a été publié sous l’égide de l’ Association Ricci du grand dictionnaire de la langue chinoise en 2001. Le dictionnaire Ricci du droit chinois entend servir d’instrument de travail aux traducteurs de documents juridiques, mais aussi aux chercheurs, universitaires, étudiants, avocats et juristes intéressés par le droit chinois.
Ce dictionnaire est aussi disponible en ligne et en caractères chinois traditionnels, traduit à la fois en anglais et en français.
Editor: Hubert Bazin
The Ricci Dictionary of Chinese Law (in Traditional Chinese) includes approximately 24,000 Chinese legal terms used by Chinese and foreign lawyers in mainland China, transcribed into pinyin and translated into English and French. It was prepared between 2006 and 2018 by a team of French and Chinese lawyers, as well as American, Canadian, English and Australian contributors, under the guidance of the Ricci Association, in order to complete and supplement the “ Grand dictionnaire Ricci de la langue chinoise” (also named “Grand Ricci”, a dictionary published in 2001 encompassing more than 300,000 terms). The Ricci Dictionary of Chinese Law aims at providing a tool for translators of Chinese legal documents, but it is also aimed at researchers, academics, students, attorneys and lawyers who have an interest in Chinese law.
This dictionary is also available online and in Simplified Chinese with English and French translations.

Le dictionnaire Ricci du droit chinois (édition en caractères traditionnels) comprend environ 24.000 termes chinois utilisés par les juristes chinois et étrangers en Chine continentale, transcrits en pinyin et traduits en anglais et en français. Cet ouvrage a été préparé entre 2006 et 2018 par une équipe d’avocats et juristes principalement français et chinois, mais aussi américains, canadiens, britanniques et australiens, pour enrichir le Grand dictionnaire Ricci de la langue chinoise, connu sous le nom de « Grand Ricci », qui traduit plus de 300,000 termes et a été publié sous l’égide de l’ Association Ricci du grand dictionnaire de la langue chinoise en 2001. Le dictionnaire Ricci du droit chinois entend servir d’instrument de travail aux traducteurs de documents juridiques, mais aussi aux chercheurs, universitaires, étudiants, avocats et juristes intéressés par le droit chinois.
Ce dictionnaire est aussi disponible en ligne et en caractères chinois simplifiés, traduit à la fois en anglais et en français.

Guanxi is the Chinese system of ideas and practices constituting social relationships and can be considered the foundation of Chinese societies. Protestant Christianity spread over guanxi networks from its first introduction to China, changing both guanxi and Christianity in the process. This paper proposes a causal model of guanxi and then analyzes how it was reconstituted in the indigenous Chinese Protestant group, the Local Churches. It is based on published writings by Local Church founders and members and on the author’s thirty years of experience with the group. This case contributes to the academic understanding of guanxi and Chinese Christianity, finding that extension of family, supply of resources, and social interaction are the core aspects of guanxi, but that specific practices change in the Christian context to preserve biblical commandments. Because guanxi networks are bonding rather than bridging, Chinese Christian groups will tend to diverge more than they converge.

關係是中國人構成社會交往的思想和實踐體系,可以說是中國社會的基礎。基督新教在中国的发展依赖于关系网络,在其传播过程中二者都发生了变化。本文先提出一个关于關係的因果模型,再分析關係如何在一個中國本土的新教團體—地方教會—中被重新構造。本項研究是基於地方教會創辦人和成員的寫作,也基於作者與該團體三十年的接触。這項個案研究 有助于擴展對關係與中國基督教的學術理解。關係最重要方面是家庭关系的延展,供應資源,以及社會交流,不過,基督徒為了遵守聖經的教訓, 改变了關係的某些实践。地方教会的关系网络强调内部团结,而不是对外开放,所以与其他基督教团体关系疏离,而不是趨向匯合。 (This article is in English.)

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In: Review of Religion and Chinese Society
Author: Ke-hsien Huang

An astonishingly large Christian coalition has emerged to protest the legalization of same-sex marriage in Taiwan, an alleged beacon for the promotion of gay rights in Asia. This article investigates how Taiwanese conservative Christianity, which had been politically inactive for decades, has publically mobilized itself since the early 2010s, particularly in reaction to the gay-rights movement. I examine how the shifting role of the state in Taiwan encouraged conservative Christians to stand up and speak against gay-rights issues. Transnational religious networks in East Asia facilitated Taiwanese conservative Christianity’s affiliation with a united and well-organized cross-denominational force targeting gay rights. Lately, religious entrepreneurs have emerged to integrate resources from business, politics, and academia that are necessary for political engagement. All these factors have contributed to this religious movement in the public sphere, a rarity in the Chinese world. I also analyze the ensuing secularist backlash: the anti-gay-rights movement is described as an anti-human-civilization movement in which charismatic leaders, portrayed as evil magicians, utilize a variety of strategies to deceive naive, ignorant believers.

台灣——被西方媒體稱為同志權益促進的亞洲燈塔——近期出現了基督宗教團體為首的強大動員力道,反對同志婚姻合法化。本篇文章探討過去幾十年間對在政治參與上消極的台灣保守基督教,如何自2010年代初期開始,積極投身剬共參與,尤其是在反對同志權益促進的議題上。筆者首先探討台灣國家道德角色的轉變,如何迫使保守基督宗教現身抗議同志權益議題;接著討論東亞的跨國宗教網絡,如何協助台灣保守基督教轉型,形成跨教派、組織精良的反同力量;最後,宗教企業家的出現,整合各領域的資源,有效幫助宗教力量以嶄新方式參與政治。以上因素促成了這個華人世界中罕見的現身剬共領域的宗教運動。在結論之前,筆者同時也分析了宗教運動後續引發的世俗主義者的逆襲:他們如何把這運動刻畫成是反人類文明,而運動中的基督宗教領袖有如邪惡的巫師,運用各種不真實的手法蒙騙天真無知的信徒。 (This article is in English.)

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In: Review of Religion and Chinese Society
Author: Naomi Thurston

This article, based on qualitative fieldwork among Chinese scholars of Christianity whom I interviewed between 2011 and 2015, explores the nexus between scholarly inquiry, cross-disciplinary negotiation, and religious belonging, specifically among the first generation of scholars researching Christianity after the launch of Deng Xiaoping’s policy of reform and opening-up. The article presents a typology of the researchers that is informed by interviewees’ disciplinary, religious, and discursive alignments. It also addresses the question of how the academic discipline of theology might find new anchorage in the landscape of “Sino-Christian studies,” with its many voices and varied interests.

本论文的资料来自笔者从2011至2015年在中国学术界进行的田野研究,探讨的重点是学术研究、跨文化协调与宗教身份的勾连,尤其针对学者中的“前辈”,即改革开放以来第一代学人。此外,此项研究将呈现一个按照学者专业、宗教归属与话语路径来划分的的类型图。本文探索的问题是:在充满不同观点与多种目标的知识话语领域中,学术性神学在当代语境中能否找到一个新的位置? (This article is in English.)

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In: Review of Religion and Chinese Society

Despite challenges from the government because of its large Protestant population, Wenzhou has come to be known as “the Jerusalem of China.” Many of the city’s entrepreneurial “boss Christians” (laoban jidutu 老板基督徒) have exported their successful businesses overseas. The empirical findings presented in this paper are part of an in-depth, comparative, qualitative study of Chinese entrepreneurs working in Milan, Italy. Treating the house churches as a sect and examining the nature of the “calling” (yi xiang 异象) described by boss Christians provides an opportunity to reconsider Max Weber’s discussion of the so-called Protestant ethic and the concept of Beruf (calling). The interviews were conducted among Protestant and non-Christian business owners active in Milan’s Chinatown and other areas in Italy, and also during fieldwork in their homeland in China. The study points out the connection between their business ethic and Protestantism.

温州因其庞大的基督徒群体而享誉为“中国的耶路撒冷。”当地许多“老板基督徒”成功地将商业活动开展至海外。本文是一项针对意大利米兰的温州企业家展开的深入比较质性研究。文中有关“异象”和家庭教会的分析,涉及到马克斯·韦伯的理论观点。研究方法结合了访谈和观察。作者访问了意大利米兰和其他地区中国城的基督徒和非基督徒企业家,并前往他们家乡做田野观察。本研究认为,他们的商业伦理与新教存在着联系。 (This article is in English.)

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In: Review of Religion and Chinese Society

Linking concepts from networks, identities, and ecology, I draw on material collected during sixty interviews to show how a group of culturally homogeneous Chinese graduate students, when placed in two sociocultural environments in the United States, displayed different processes of religious identity network formation. In a large and heterogeneous community with more possible identities, students showed human agency by forming religious identities less constrained by networks. Human agency is also exemplified in the expansion of their religious circle of friends once they developed a religious identity. Religious identity often preceded networks. However, in a small and homogeneous community, students did emotion work to stay in pro-religious groups, presumably due to the limitations they had in choosing friends, particularly Chinese friends. The formation of networks more likely preceded the emergence of religious identities premised on the coexistence of multiple relationships in dyads and solidarity within primary groups. The narratives demonstrate how ecology matters for the formation of network ties and religious identity.

根据对60个对硕士博士研究生的采访,通过运用网络分析、身份研究、和环境研究领域的概念,本文详述同属一个文化的中国留学生当处于美国两个不同城市文化环境中时,通过生活圈子发展特定身份的不同过程。在一个大型、充满差异的城市里,留学生的身份选择具有多样性。其主体性表现在自主选择宗教认同并扩大有宗教信仰的朋友圈子。他们的宗教认同常常先于他们的宗教朋友圈。而在一个小型、倡导同化的城市里,由于可选择的中国朋友人数少,留学生常常通过控制自我感情来维系与亲宗教的朋友的关系。他们的宗教网络常常先于他们的宗教认同。在这种环境中,当两人有多重社会关系,并处于一个高度团结的小群体中时,宗教认同才得以传播。本研究显示社区规模和文化是重要的影响身份和社会网络的环境因素。 (This article is in English.)

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In: Review of Religion and Chinese Society
Author: Jenny Chan

Internships have become integral to the development of vocational education in China. This article looks into the quasi-employment arrangements of student interns, who occupy an ambiguous space between being a student and being a worker at the point of production. Some employers recruit interns on their own, while others secure a supply of student labor through coordinated support of provincial and lower-level governments that prioritize investments, as well as through subcontracting services of private labor agencies. The incorporation of teachers into corporate management can strengthen control over students during their internships. While interns are required to do the same work as other employees, their unpaid or underpaid working experiences testify that intern labor is devalued. Exposés of abuses, such as using child labor in the guise of interns, have pressured the Chinese state and companies to eventually take remedial action. Reclaiming student workers’ educational and labor rights in the growing intern economy, however, remains contested.

学生实习已经成为中国职业教育发展的重要组成部分。本文旨在探讨实习生面对的特殊雇佣关系,了解他们的工作处境,就是在劳动过程中占据了一个介于学生和工人之间的模糊位置。目前企业一般自行招募实习生,或通过地方政府和私人的中介机构进行大规模动员。校企合作之下,老师的介入加强了实习过程中对学生的劳动控制。当这些实习生被要求和其他工人一样工作时,他们的薪酬和福利待遇却往往低于一般工人,甚至是无酬的。近年来,以实习之名而使用童工为实的事件曝光以后,政府官员和剬司主管被迫采用了一些应对措施。然而,在快速发展的“实习经济”中,要实现实习劳工的基本教育和劳动权利仍是困难重重。 (This article is in English.)

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In: Rural China
Author: Ellen R. Judd

China’s expanding workforce of rural–urban migrants is increasingly involved in care work while simultaneously facing issues of care within its own ranks for its family members. The work examined here concerns care—for the elderly and ill, for children, and in everyday domestic labor. This form of work is widely performed predominantly by migrant women in (usually) urban households in circumstances lacking labor protections. They are performing work that creates value and that constitutes a key service sector of the informal economy. Much the same population provides similar care work for family members of their own (usually) in the countryside, work that also creates value but is normally unremunerated. Rural migrant and potential migrant women may be in complex social positions where their work is needed in both circumstances, and are in both circumstances providing value for their families—through income earned and through work of direct use value. The work in both instances is socially structured through being in or outside the informal economy and in or outside ties of kinship. This article argues for an expanded and adequately gendered concept of the informal economy based on value and Maussian concepts of human economy.

中国日益增加着由乡村进入城市的大量投入到保姆工作中的劳动力,与其同时也面临着她们对其自身家庭成员的照料问题。本文关切的是家庭护理问题,这里指的是对老人,病患,孩子的照料,以及日常家务劳动。这种工作主要是由农村妇女来到通常是城市的家庭中,在缺少正规劳动保护的环境中工作。她们劳动创造的价值构成了非正规经济服务职能中的一个核心部分。这群打工族大多来自农村,并在其自身家庭中承担着同样的照料工作。然而这种同样创造着价值的工作一般并没有得到补偿。来自乡村的打工族及潜在的妇女民工可能处于一种复杂的社会地位中,她们的工作在这两种社会环境中都迫切需要,并都为她们的家庭或通过所挣工资,或通过直接使用其劳动创造着价值。这两种工作情况——在非正规经济之中或其外,以及在亲属关系之中或其外,都是社会构成的。本文提出一种基于价值观与人类学马塞尔莫斯学派的人性经济概念, 并进一步将其扩展并充分性别化的非正规经济。 (This article is in English.)

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In: Rural China

This article presents an updated overview of China’s “informal economy,” based mainly on social-economic and legal history, and attempts to clarify its conceptual origins, composition, nature, size, and changes in the past thirty-five years. Special attention is paid to the rise of “dispatch work” and of the “new generation peasant workers” in the past decade. The article then introduces and discusses the content and issues raised by the six articles and two commentaries of the symposium, “China’s Informal Economy, Reconsidered.” The focus is on how China’s “informal economy” is different from or the same as the older category of “the proletariat” and the newer category of “the precariat.”

本文从社会经济史与法律史的视角对中国的非正经济进行更新了的综述,试图澄清其概念起源,以及其构成、性质、规模和近三十五年中的变化。文章特别关注到最近十来年中“劳务派遣”以及“新生代农民工”的兴起。然后,文章介绍了本专辑“中国非正规经济——再思考”所纳入的六篇论文和两篇点评,主要关注的问题是中国的“非正规经济”和之前被广泛使用的“无产阶级”以及新近被使用的“危难工人”(precariat)两个范畴之间的异同。 (This article is in English.)

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In: Rural China