This richly illustrated book provides an overview of all known Dutch and Flemish artists up to the nineteenth century who painted or drew flower pieces, or else made prints of them. Unlike many mainstream art historical studies, the book takes a truly comprehensive approach, including cases where only a single example is known or even if nothing of the artist’s other work appears to have survived. Containing highly instructive lists identifying the names of flowers, as well as insects and other animals, the book also discusses the earliest depictions of flower still life and the distinctive characteristics behind the development of floral arrangements in different periods, including the variation of the flowers, the variety of techniques used by artists, as well as an exploration of the symbolism behind the numerous plant and animal species this form of art portrays.
Composed in Dutch, the text was translated into English by Judith Deitch and edited by Philip Kelleway.
Publication of this book was made possible thanks to generous support of:
As the global climate warms, increased aridity is expected to become a major determinant of forest productivity and tree growth. In gymnosperms, wood density quantified at seasonal to annual scales can be related to changes in tracheid lumen size due to alterations in soil water availability. In this way, minimum wood density (MND) has been shown to respond negatively to early growing-season precipitation in several conifers because dry conditions reduce tracheid lumen size and consequently increase MND. We investigated if this relationship between spring precipitation and MND applies to four conifer species (Abies alba, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Juniperus thurifera) in NE Spain from mesic (A. alba, P. sylvestris) to xeric (P. nigra, J. thurifera) conditions. We further assessed how climate, precipitation, and drought-affected tree-ring width (TRW) and MND at several time scales to test if water shortage in spring increases MND and decreases TRW over time and seasonally. Lastly, we quantified the post-drought MND recovery. We found the strongest negative correlations between MND and spring precipitation in P. nigra followed by J. thurifera. In these two species, the associations between MND and 9-month long droughts peaked in early spring (P. nigra, ; J. thurifera, ). Juniperus thurifera presented a better post-drought recovery (decrease in MND), followed by P. nigra and P. sylvestris. We conclude that MND is a reliable and accurate proxy of drought severity during spring in conifers subjected to seasonal water shortage. MND can be used as an early-warning indicator of short- and long-term changes in the responses of trees to water shortage.
Identifying wood species using wood anatomy is an important tool for various purposes. The traditionally used method is based on the macroscopic description of the physical and anatomical characteristics of the wood. This requires that the identifier has thorough technical knowledge about wood anatomy. A possible alternative to this task is to use intelligent systems capable of identifying species through an analysis of digital images. In this work, 21 species were used to generate a set of 2000 macroscopic images. These were produced with a smartphone under field conditions, from samples manually polished with knives. Texture characteristics obtained through a gray level co-occurrence matrix were used in developing classifiers based on support vector machines. The best model achieved a 97.7% accuracy. Our study concluded that the automated identification of species can be performed in the field in a practical, simple and precise way.
This study assessed whether allometric scaling applied to pit sizes in stems of Douglas fir. Pit and pit aperture diameters were measured in xylem from stems of four plantation-grown Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) trees from each of two different sites in Denmark. One site had fertile soil, the other had poor soil fertility. Three different heights were accessed for each tree, and 40 pits were measured per height. Results showed that pit diameter varied between 17 and 24 μm and decreased significantly with increasing height above ground. Representing the position in the tree as a power function of distance from the top of the tree (L0.2) rather than the height above ground improved the model fit for pit diameter as expressed by the R2 value. However, the pit diameter relationship was found to be significantly affected by site, suggesting that anatomic dimensions relate not only to tree size but also to growth conditions. This would imply that even though pit size supposedly has a strong biophysical determination, some xylem plasticity may still be induced by environmental factors.
Low Zn in staple food grains like rice is closely related to large scale Zn malnutrition in many countries of the World. Zinc biofortification of rice grains by some cost effective agronomic method is important for low income farmers. To explore the possibility of enhancing the bioavailability of Zn in rice grains besides higher yields of two cultivars, the combinations of varying Zn fertilizer doses with or without inoculation of rhizobacteria consortium under split plot design set up were evaluated in two years field trials. Microbial inoculation + 5 kg Zn ha-1 to I year rice crop resulted in the highest number of effective tillers, grain yields, Zn concentration and uptake in grains and straw and total Zn uptake in both years. Grain yield of rice during two years increased by 19.7-27.9 and 17.1-20.4 percent over control under treatments receiving microbial inoculation + 5 kg Zn ha-1 to I year rice and 5 kg Zn ha-1 alone to I year rice crop, respectively. The highest concentration of Zn (10.9-19.1 mg kg-1) and the lowest concentration of phytic acid (18.5-25.3 g kg-1) in dehulled rice grains were recorded with soil application of 5 kg Zn ha-1; however, the values were at par with those observed under microbial inoculation + 5 kg Zn ha-1 (12.0-17.0 mg Zn kg-1 and 19.2-26.9 g phytic acid kg-1). The percent utilization of soil applied Zn increased with microbial inoculation in both the years and it was relatively higher in NDR 359 as compared to PD 16.
Under stress environment of oily sludge, plants develop oxidative stress which effect nutrients uptake, activity of oxidative defence enzymes, cause ion imbalance and toxicity in plants. The present study was designed to develop a combination of bacterial consortium alone and with fertilizers that can help to improve alfalfa growth and plant defence system under stress environment of oily sludge contamination soils. For this study consortium was prepared from Bacillus cereus (Acc KR232400), Bacillus altitudinis (Acc KF859970), Comamonas (Acc KF859971) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Acc KF859973) and was inoculated with fertilizer to oily sludge contaminated soils. A pot experiment was conducted using complete randomized design with three replicates. The plants were harvested at 21 d for estimation of protein, proline and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). The protein, SOD and POD contents in alfalfa were higher in oily sludge than soil without consortium, ammonium nitrate and diamamoiun phosphate. Consortium suppressed the oxidative stress of sludge treated plants. The inoculation of bacterial consortium enhanced the uptake of Ca, Mg, K and Na. The uptake of Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Cu and Zn increased significantly with consortium+fertilizer the availability of nutrients in soil with 30% and 60% of oily. Cd content was greater in root than leaves of alfalfa. The bacterial consortium helped to enhance plant growth and plant anti-oxidant enzymes system. The consortium with fertilizer is the best suitable combination for alfalfa that can improve the oxidative enzyme system of alfalfa and increases its growth and development.
Lateral organs are formed in plants by post embryonic developmental programs. Leaves, and flowers differentiate from the shoot apical meristem and lateral roots from the primary root pericycle meristem. Adventitious roots are roots formed from non-root lateral meristematic tissues, mostly the cambium, in many cases in response to stress signals. The ability of plants to regenerate adventitious roots is fundamental for selection and breading programs which are based on vegetative propagation of elite clones. Thus, recalcitrant plants, losing their rooting capability, may form a genuine commercial barrier in agricultural and forestry improvement programs. Some cellular mechanisms underlying adventitious root formation have been revealed, but much is yet to be clarified. The plant primary cell wall is a dynamic organ that can change its form, and perceive and relay molecular signals inward and outward during certain stages of development in particular cells. Therefore, before the secondary cell wall is deposited and plants become the wood from which walls and furniture are built, and the fibers from which cloths are woven, primary cell walls actively participate in plant cell differentiation and developmental programs. While auxin is a major regulator, cell walls are important in regulating coherent formative cell division and synchronized polar elongation of cell lineages that are necessary for lateral organ induction and formation, and collaborative cell functioning. Nevertheless, little is known of how cell wall changes are molecularly sensed and translated to intracellular signals during differentiation of adventitious roots. Here we summarize recent data linking, directly or indirectly, cell wall events to auxin signaling and to lateral or adventitious root induction and formation.
Drought and flooding are environmental extremes and major threats to crop production. Water uptake is achieved by plant roots which have to explore new soil spaces to alleviate water deficit during drought or to cope with water excess during flooding. Adaptation of the root system architecture helps plants cope with such extreme conditions and is crucial for plant health and survival. While for dicot plants the well studied model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has provided insight into the genetic and molecular regulation of the root system, less information is available for monocot species, which include the agronomically important cereal crops. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a semi-aquatic monocot plant that develops strong tolerance to flooding. Flooding tolerance of rice is closely linked to its adaptive root system. The functional root system of rice is mainly composed of crown roots and is shifted to nodal adventitious roots during flooding which allows rice to maintain oxygen supply to the roots and to survive longer periods of partial submergence as compared with other crops. Likewise, a number of drought-tolerance traits of rice are the result of an altered root system architecture. Hence, the structure of the root system adapts to, both, flooding and drought. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms that control root system adaptation to extreme environments is a key task for scientists to accelerate the breeding efforts for stress-tolerant crops. This review summarizes recently identified genes and molecular mechanisms that regulate root system architecture in rice in response to drought and flooding.