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Volume Editors: Gillian B. Elliott and Anne Heath
Premodern architecture and built environments were fluid spaces whose configurations and meanings were constantly adapting and changing. The production of transitory meaning transpired whenever a body or object moved through these dynamic spaces. Whether spanning the short duration of a procession or the centuries of a building’s longue durée, a body or object in motion created in-the-moment narratives that unfolded through time and space. The authors in this volume forge new approaches to architectural studies by focusing on the interaction between monuments, artworks, and their viewers at different points in space and time.

Contributors are Christopher A. Born, Elizabeth Carson Pastan, Nicole Corrigan, Gillian B. Elliott, Barbara Franzé, Anne Heath, Philip Jacks, Divya Kumar-Dumas, Brigitte Kurmann-Schwarz, Ashley J. Laverock, Susan Leibacher Ward, Elodie Leschot, Meghan Mattsson McGinnis, Michael Sizer, Kelly Thor, and Laura J. Whatley.
In diesem Buch analysiert Veronika Müller Julians Werk Ad Florum 1, das durch Augustinus im Contra Iulianum opus imperfectum ausführlich zitiert und kommentiert wurde. Ad Florum 1 wird erstmalig in einem zusammenhängenden Textfluss ohne Augustins Kommentare, mit einer deutschen Übersetzung und einem Kommentar dargeboten. Die wichtigsten Erkenntnisse sind in der Hinführung gesammelt, die dem Leser eine gute Orientierung für die Interpretation des lateinischen Textes ermöglicht. Veronika Müller erhellt mit ihrer Untersuchung den literarischen und philosophisch-theologischen Kontext von Julians Werk und rückt insbesondere Julians rhetorisch-argumentative Vorgehensweise ins Zentrum der Betrachtung.

In this volume Veronika Müller examines Julian’s work Ad Florum 1, which is both quoted and commented by Augustine in his Contra Iulianum opus imperfectum. For the first time, Ad Florum 1 is offered in continuous text without Augustine’s comments, including a German translation and with a commentary. The most important findings are collected in the introduction providing the reader with a compass to the interpretation of the Latin text. With her analysis, Veronika Müller illuminates the literary and philosophical-theological context of Julian's work particularly focusing on Julian's rhetorical-argumentative approach.
By applying a stylistic analysis within a systemic-functional linguistic framework, this study argues that Luke's construal of the Jerusalem Council in Acts 15 and its co-thematic passages attempt to persuade Jewish believers of Luke's audience not to separate from multi-ethnic churches, a goal that is accomplished through subverting the value orientations of a prominent Noahic tradition within Second Temple Jewish literature that promotes strict Jewish isolation from Gentiles. As a result, this study breaks fresh methodological ground in the linguistic study on the New Testament and also advances critical scholarship on the book of Acts.
According to Raúl González Salinero, the plurality of religious expressions within Judaism prior to the predominance of the rabbinical current disproves the assumption according to which some Jewish customs and precepts (especially the Sabbath) prevented Jews from joining the Roman army without renouncing their ancestral culture. The military exemption occasionally granted to the Jews by the Roman authorities was compatible with their voluntary enlistment (as it was in the Hellenistic armies) in order to obtain Roman citizenship. As the sources attest, Judaism did not pose any insurmountable obstacle to integration of the Jews into the Roman world. They achieved a noteworthy presence in the Roman army by the fourth century CE, at which time the Church’s influence over imperial power led to their exclusion from the militia armata.
Author: Mattias Brand
Religion is never simply there. In Religion and the Everyday Life of Manichaeans in Kellis, Mattias Brand shows where and when ordinary individuals and families in Egypt practiced a Manichaean way of life. Rather than portraying this ancient religion as a well-structured, totalizing community, the fourth-century papyri sketch a dynamic image of lived religious practice, with all the contradictions, fuzzy boundaries, and limitations of everyday life. Following these microhistorical insights, this book demonstrates how family life, gift-giving, death rituals, communal gatherings, and book writing are connected to our larger academic debates about religious change in late antiquity.
The Spirit’s Empowerment of the Early Jesus Community
What does Luke mean when he describes the Spirit as gift (Acts 2:38)? This study explores the social implications of gift-giving in the Greco-Roman world, arguing that gifts initiate and sustain relationships. Therefore, the description of the Spirit as gift is inherently social, which is shown in the Spirit’s empowerment of the teaching, unity, meals, sharing of possessions and worship of the early Jesus community. The Spirit as gift then leads us to see that the early Jesus community is “the community of the Holy Spirit.”
Why does Jephthah’s daughter weep? Readers have creatively imagined the causes of her tears as she weeps upon her betulim—usually translated virginity or maidenhood. But her menstrual cycle’s relation to these terms is rarely mentioned. A child-oriented theoretical and methodological foundation and research with post-menarcheal girls provide new answers to oft-raised questions about Bat-Yiphtach’s weeping and her agency. Through an in-depth philological review and a focus on the “excluded middle” of the child-adult binary, this translation and interpretation of the story contribute to the field of childhood studies and shows that menarche and menstruation play a larger role in the narrative than readers have realized.
Die Entstehung des biblischen Konzepts der Leviten
Author: Raik Heckl
Die Untersuchung zeichnet die Entstehung des Levitismus nach. Dieser kommt erst in der spätvorexilischen Zeit als judäische Innovation des Stammeskonzeptes auf. Überlieferungen über den Jakobsohn Levi werden nach 722 in Juda zur Formung einer Gruppenidentität der Beamten und literalen Eliten genutzt. Mose und Aaron als Beamte des Gottes Israel werden Protagonisten dieser Gruppierung, weswegen man auch das Priestertum am Zentralheiligtum als Teil der Beamtenschaft integrierte, sodass u.a. im Deuteronomium von levitischen Priestern gesprochen wird. In der nachexilischen Zeit wurden eine Reihe von Berufen und Gruppen unter der Bezeichnung „Leviten“ als eine Art Tempelbeamtentum der Priesterschaft unterstellt. Damit wurde eine Professionalisierung des Kultbetriebes und eine radikale Trennung von kultischen und nichtkultischen Bereichen und Tätigkeiten verbunden. Nach diesem Konzept agierten die Leviten für das Volk und repräsentierten es in den nichtkultischen Bereichen des Tempeldienstes.

The study tracks the origins of the Biblical Levitism. It only emerged in the late pre-exilic period as a Judean innovation of the tribal concept. After 722, traditions about Jacob's son Levi were used in Judah to form a group identity of officials and literal elites. Moses and Aaron, as officials of the God of Israel, became protagonists of this group. Therefore, the priests at the central shrine were also integrated as part of the officials, so that Deuteronomy, for example, speaks of Levitical priests. In the post-exilic period, a number of professions and groups were subordinated to the priesthood under the designation "Levites" as a kind of temple office. In the process, a professionalisation of the cultic sector and a radical separation of cultic and non-cultic areas and activities took place. In this, the Levites acted on behalf of the people and represented them in the non-cultic areas of the temple.
Historical criticism of the Bible emerged in the context of protestant theology and is confronted in every aspect of its study with otherness: the Jewish people and their writings. However, despite some important exceptions, there has been little sustained reflection on the ways in which scholarship has engaged, and continues to engage, its most significant Other. This volume offers reflections on anti-Semitism, philo-Semitism and anti-Judaism in biblical scholarship from the 19th century to the present. The essays in this volume reflect on the past and prepare a pathway for future scholarship that is mindful of its susceptibility to violence and hatred.
Resolving Disputes challenges the consensus that the petitions to the leaders of “the πολίτευμα of the Jews in Herakleopolis” (P.Polit.Iud. 8.4-5) prove that while the Ptolemies granted Jews limited self-governance according to their ancestral traditions, the petitioners nonetheless relied almost exclusively on Ptolemaic Greek law to make their agreements and settle their arguments. Reading the appeals in their proper juridical context, this study shows how these Jewish petitioners in fact made sophisticated use of their ancestral norms, drawing from them principles that complemented and contradicted prevailing Greek law. The Jews appealing to the leaders of the πολίτευμα in Herakleopolis embraced Torah.