Religious minorities have always been at the centre of the German nation-state’s self-understanding, as it came to define itself vis a vis, and often against, them. Historically, this can be seen specifically in the Jewish experience, and today reverberates in the experience of Muslims grappling with a position of alterity in German society. We will move beyond the scholarship on these two religious minority groups to that of these two religious minority groups—that is the intellectual milieu of German Jews and German Muslims. Both have confronted the insider-outsider status of religious minorities in Germany, while themselves occupying—and thinking from—this position of alterity. As Jewish intellectuals a century prior, Muslim intellectuals are confronting the (im)possibility of fully belonging to the society at hand. In so doing, they are, at times inadvertently, coming into conversation with Jewish intellectuals past on ideas surrounding the practice of religion, pluralism, minority-state relations, and social ethics.
Drawing on ethnographic research with Haredi women in Stamford Hill to explore the limits of the secular vocabularies which dominate sociological diversity discourse, I ask why an assumed Jewish-Muslim enmity became its focus. First my response explores how a political theology of European Christendom, and a particular conjuncture of its race-religion constellation (Topolski 2018) finds expression in a secular concept of conviviality that regulates possibilities for intimacy in Hackney. I develop the claim that rationalist ideals of liberal sociality are in part mobilized to repress and contain violent histories of assimilation and exclusion in the borough. Second, I turn to Haredi women’s expression of an alternative Jewish-Muslim picture through intimacies that diverge from a convivial grammar. This leads me to tentatively explore how a vernacular Hasidic concept of chesed might hold together antinomies of care and violence, and offer alternatives for being-with, and mourning-with the neighbour in violent times.
Drawing on original interviews conducted between 2016 and 2018, this article explores understandings of Muslim-Jewish relations among Jews who immigrated from Morocco to France after 1945. These interviews suggest that the weight of currently circulating meta-discourses can lead to dissonances between individuals’ personal memories and the collective memories that they invoke in regard to Jewish-Muslim relations. As these interviews were conducted as part of a larger study of graduates of the schools of the Alliance Israelite Universelle in the MENA who immigrated to France, Canada and the United States after 1945, the author places these French findings in a larger comparative context, considering how the memories and perspectives of Moroccan Jews who immigrated to France converge and diverge from those who emigrated to North America.
Based on religious belonging, either Jewish or Muslim, and trajectories of migration, the ascription of radical alterity transforms minority status but also distinguishes it from French national citizenship (Sayad, 1987). I argue that diverse forms of Muslim alterity in France borrow elements of the ways in which Jews were/are constructed as Others; both illegitimate and dangerous. To do this, I analyze and compare the specificity and the variations of legal exclusion, of the alterization and social illegitimacy to which Jewish then Muslim populations have been or are relegated. Such a comparative perspective allows us to identify regulation vis-à-vis French Jews under Vichy in order to underline an ideological continuum which fuels the construction of the figure of the internal (Jewish, and now Muslim) stranger. To the image of the stranger I apply the notion of paradoxical citizenship elaborated by Joan W. Scott in the case of women excluded from citizenship along with Jews (Scott, 1998).
Germany is hailed as a successful model of facing difficult pasts. Based on ethnographic research in civic education, this article situates Holocaust commemoration within German secularism. It brings together memory, Palestine and African-American studies to articulate how Holocaust memory manages an enduring crisis of citizenship. This crisis is predicated upon the disparity between the ideal of freedom and the reality of ethno-religious difference. The article demonstrates how Holocaust memory has been institutionally folded into secular time leading to a more liberal nation-state. It further explores memorial sites as extensions of secular governance, but also spaces in which embodied forms of memory, such as the Palestinian experience of catastrophe enter and desire an extension of this humanity. This notion of humanity co-produces the figure of the “anti-human.” This figure is enabled by an older strand of antisemitism and has an “afterlife” in the real or imagined body of the “Palestinian-Muslim troublemaker.”
The Jew and the Muslim are historically among the primary figures of alterity in Europe, the constitutive outsiders who have shaped what Europe is, notably around questions of conflict, migration and integration. However, on the ground contemporary Jewish and Muslim communities have often been at the forefront of critical engagement with these questions, for example with regard to the Mediterranean migration crisis and heightened societal security concerns. This introduction sets out the main questions and themes of this volume.
From an intergroup conflict perspective, this paper studies cross perceptions and patterns of sociability between Jews and Muslims in a French suburban multicultural context, the town of Sarcelles ( Val d’Oise), where violent anti-Semitic riots took place in July 2014. Drawing on a sample representative of the town’s adult population from an experimental telephone survey conducted in January 2019, we show that everyday relations between Jews and Muslims do not show any particular tension, and that antisemitism is massively condemned. However there is a strong feeling of insecurity among Jews who both tend to be closest to their own group, and are seen as a separate group, with more social and political influence locally than other groups.
This paper analyses interactions between Jews and Muslims in Paris through a case-study of two Parisian not for profit organizations: Centre Culturel Dalâla and Parler en Paix. The aim of both organizations is to teach Hebrew and Arabic language to students of all levels. Based on fieldwork carried out within these organizations and through participant observation of their classes and cultural activities, I investigate the interpersonal relationships they create between Jews and Muslims on the one hand, and within each group on the other. Using a comparative approach, the paper discusses Jewish-Muslim relations, an often overlooked field within interreligious studies. It proposes an investigation through three perspectives: the generational, the memorial and post-colonial, and finally the transnational into which the Muslim-Jewish relationship in France is embedded allowing us to go beyond both irenic or binary visions of the relationship between Jews and Muslims in France, leaving behind a vision marked by an often tragic present.
Researching Muslim-Jewish encounters always risks reifying categories and foregrounding faith-based identities over other – for instance ethnic or class – identities. The “diversity turn” in scholarship provides one way to address this, highlighting multiple and intersecting lines of identity, but risks erasing the dynamic role of race’s power geometries and of the state in shaping emic identifications. This interview with urban scholar Michael Keith focuses on his research in in East London, a site conventionally narrated as the point of arrival for Eastern European Jewish and later South Asian Muslim migration to the UK, and now represented in some sensationalist media and pseudo-scholarly discourses as an “Islamised” “no-go zone” for Jews. Keith argues that a rigorous commitment to the empirical, granular attention to space’s productivity, and openness to the fragility and contingency of all identity categories of can help avoid such lachrymose caricatures as well as de-politicised versions of the “diversity” frame.
This paper critiques representations of observant Muslims and Jews in Britain as constituting an ‘Orthodox fraternity’ when it comes to equality discourse by drawing on policy activism around autopsy, COVID-19 protocols, and sexuality education. The Equality Act (2010) aims to protect people with ‘protected characteristics’ from discrimination, which include (but are not limited to) religion and sexual orientation. I suggest that religious minorities are presented in policy discourse as mobilizing the Equality Act to collaboratively defend their rights to protection of difference. Similarly, anthropological and sociological attention to organised interfaith activism reifies representations of collaborations between religious minorities but obscures situated valuations of equality. I instead examine the contingent value of equality by highlighting opposition to LGBT inclusion. The trope of ‘Orthodox fraternities’ emerges as a useful tool to critique the construction of collaborations between minorities in the context of ‘multiculturalism,’ while masking everyday experiences of prejudice and xenophobia.