This paper presents a description of evidentiality marking in the Rikvani dialect of Andi. As a language spoken in the Caucasus, Andi is situated in the center of a large area within Eurasia where evidentiality is frequently expressed with a perfect or resultative form of the verb (general indirective), and special particles marking hearsay (and sometimes also inference). Both are attested in Andi and form independent evidential paradigms. I will explore the way these forms are used in natural texts and elicitation and how they interact with each other. An important issue is to what extent evidentiality can be considered grammaticalized as part of the verbal paradigm in Andi. I will compare my observations on Andi to the systems found in other East Caucasian languages.
This article presents the evolution of the concepts of jihād from the minimalist and maximalist approaches. In the present article one can find two conceptions: the conception of liminality and the conception of re-Islamisation. Liminality is a form of structural crisis that appears as a result of the split within the Islamic spiritual elite and Muslim community itself. The period of liminality is characterised by political and social instability, crisis of social and individual forms of self-identification and sharp cognitive dissonance among many ordinary believers who conduct their own search for fundamentally new forms of Islamic political existence. Re-Islamisation is the post-liminality period that happens if the maximalist block of Islamic elite wins political power. The events of the Arab Spring can be seen as the result of the appearance in the Islamic ideological space of two different ideological platforms (minimalism and maximalism) around which representatives of not only the Islamic elite, but also the “popular” Islam gathered.
The present investigation concerns the category of “Time” in its dialectical relation between a limitless eternity and the limited period of the direct antagonism with Ahreman’s forces. The eternal time being co-substantial with God is an ontological force a priori, which results determinant in the preventive fight against Ahreman, whose perception of time, on the contrary, seems to be absent, at least until he does not enter into the visual space of Ohrmazd. In particular, the article deals with the metaphysic development of the idea of time in the Zoroastrian theological tradition with special regard to the treatment of the relation between the beginning of the cosmic motion and the aggression of Ahreman, discussing some different, sometimes contradictory, doctrines attested in the sources. These alternative, sometimes antagonist, solutions reflect archaic Iranian traditions, but also the reception of new Western philosophical doctrines. The problem of the “visibility” of the limited time (in terms of its measurability) only after Ahreman’s invasion shows that the limited time in its mēnōg dimension had the same character of the eternal time, because it was perceived only by Ohrmazd, and despite that absence of any celestial motion, it was advancing as an abstract tempus mathematicus. The study also emphasizes the close relation among time, space and light as co-present in the divine ontology.
The article explores some aspects of modern childbirth rituals and practices among the city dwellers of Dagestan, focusing on their syncretic nature and the mixture of traditional and new customs. Proper Islamic religious ceremonies occupy a significant place in the childbirth rituals, among them being mawlid, on the occasion of the birth, name-giving of a new-born, circumcision, visiting ziyarats, etc. Traditional ceremonies include the custom of treating a new mother with flour porridge, putting a child in a traditional cradle, the first hair-cut ceremony, the loss of the first tooth, the first steps of the child, etc. Some of the popular rites were invented in the Soviet and post-Soviet times.
The present article resumes the history of the first edition of the Caucasian Albanian palimpsests with a special focus on the contributions by Wolfgang Schulze, without whom nothing that has been achieved would have been achieved. Thematised are the different types of photographs that were used (ultraviolet and multispectral images), with an outlook on the new technology of transmissive light imaging. Added is a revised edition of the beginning of the Gospel of John as preserved in the palimpsest manuscript Sin. georg. N 13, based upon transmissive light images provided by the Sinai Palimpsests Project.