This paper argues for the political urgency of the project of World Cinema, and an understanding of World Cinema as a dynamic totality. Totality here is not a generic, macroscopic lens, but a system that accounts for the co-existence of all cinemas as well as the uneven power relationships that determine the relative visibility or invisibility of cinemas in the global system. This structural inequity, a condition that underlies the differentiated cinematic flows, is also a methodological ruse in that it can only point to unequal relationships in discourses that define the current conceptions of World Cinema. An awareness of totality, we argue, makes it possible to return to films themselves as nodal points from which to begin the mapping of World Cinema through its complex networks of financing, distribution, and its circuits of legitimation (film festivals, academic discourses) which shape world cinema as a body of knowledge.
This essay considers the contrasting circumstances and perspectives on music making in New Spain (colonial Mexico) from the time of Charles V into the seventeenth century, highlighting the fragmentary nature of the evidence, its inextricable connection to the ritual of the Catholic Church, and the role of the religious orders. It questions the commonplace narrative of the magical power of European music among indigenous populations, an assertion made by period missionaries themselves, and looks into musical practices related to those in the European Low Countries. It also underscores the agency of individual musicians in a colonial musical environment and suggests that the surviving music repertoires primarily underscore the Tridentine Catholicism associated with King Philip II and his successors.
Instrumental music fulfilled significant roles throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in both the courts and cities of Central Europe, where it formed the sonic foundation for many musical functions and entertainments, especially the church services, balls, concerts, and table music that refreshed both body and spirit. This essay offers a survey of the genres and functions of instrumental music at the Central European Habsburg courts, including such topics as the varieties of dance music, instrumental music as recreation for Habsburg family members, changing musical styles, and the various contexts in which instrumental music was heard, including church services, weddings, banquets, academies, bathhouses, carnival celebrations, and the theatre.
The practice of music at the imperial Habsburg courts of the sixteenth century has been a subject of musicological scholarship since the second half of the nineteenth century. This chapter provides an overview of different areas of musical practice in the households of Emperors Ferdinand I, Maximilian II, Rudolph II, and Matthias. An outline of the development of the institution and its organizational structure is provided, using the court chapel of Ferdinand I as a case study, before discussing the changes and continuities in the musical personnel as a consequence of changes in government. Leading composers and performers are also discussed, including the compositional output by such Habsburg court musicians as Arnold von Bruck, Pieter Maessins, Jacobus Vaet, Philippe de Monte, Jacob Regnart, Carl Luython, and Lambert de Sayve. In addition to discussions of the institutional musical practice within the court chapel, a brief overview of the practice of instrumental and chamber music is also provided.
The patrimonial rupture that occurred in the line of Habsburg emperors upon the death of childless Emperor Matthias had significant consequences for the musical life at the imperial court. Matthias’s successor, his cousin Ferdinand II, had been raised at his father Archduke Charles II’s Inner Austrian court at Graz, a bastion of both the Counter-Reformation and of Italian music and culture. It was with this line that the Baroque came to the Habsburg courts, with an influx of Italian musicians (including Giovanni Priuli, Giovanni Valentini, Antonio Bertali, Giovanni Felice Sances, and Antonio Draghi) and the cultivation of cutting-edge musical styles and genres. Helping to nourish the growth of Italian Baroque culture were the Italian brides of Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III, both named Eleonora Gonzaga. This Italian music was put to use as a political weapon in the Habsburgs’ fervent attempts to re-Catholicize their realms, even in the face of the Thirty Years’ War. Unlike the previous line of Austrian emperors, for whom it was customary to dismiss their predecessor’s musicians, this line saw a continuity of chapel membership across the Emperors’ reigns, from Ferdinand II to Ferdinand III to Leopold I.
The marriage of Maximilian of Austria to Mary of Burgundy brought the famed Burgundian chapel into the Habsburg orbit and set the pattern for later Habsburg court chapels, including those of Maximilian’s son Philip the Fair and grandson Charles V. The chapel was of fluctuating membership, but its numbers typically increased in preparation for significant events, such as Philip’s two journeys to Spain. Aside from an organist, instrumentalists were not formally part of the chapel but were used at least occasionally with the singers – initially all adult males, but by the time of Charles V, incorporating boys as well. At irregular intervals, from 1469 into the reign of Philip II, ordinances governing the duties and behavior of the chapel were drawn up by successive rulers. These document a heavy round of liturgical duties for the chapel that typically included the performance of polyphony. Not surprisingly, the chapels of each ruler included various composers. Among these were Heinrich Isaac (designated specifically as a composer), Ludwig Senfl, and Paul Hofhaimer (for Maximilian); Pierre de La Rue, Alexander Agricola, Marbriano de Orto, and Gaspar van Weerbeke (for Philip); and Nicolas Gombert, Thomas Crecquillon, and Cornelius Canis (for Charles). Each chapel was thereby supplied with compositions in the latest style by leading contemporaries for use both in the liturgy and for ceremonial occasions. The chapel thus served as an extension and glorification of the ruler’s power and majesty.
The chapel of the Royal Alcázar palace in Madrid occupied a central place in the Habsburgs’ Spanish royal court. The King attended Mass there on Sundays and holy days, and his presence ensured that members of all tiers of the court, including the various foreign ambassadors, were also in attendance. For services at the chapel, the King had a group of chaplains, officials, ministers, and musicians who were responsible for all matters pertaining to religious ceremonies. The chaplains and musicians formed a section of the royal household known as the ‘royal chapel’, and, in addition to praying the Divine Office, they were tasked with looking after the spiritual health of the court. Although there were the occasional singers and instrumentalists in other parts of the royal household, the royal chapel was musically dominant and attended to all the musical needs of the Spanish Habsburg court. The royal chapel musicians did not merely take part in court theatre; the best singers and instrumentalists played in the king’s chamber, and the chapel as a whole was a crucial element of the King’s image. This essay provides an overview of the functions and organization of the Spanish royal chapel during the two nearly centuries of Habsburg rule in Spain. It also discusses the distinctive polychoral and concertato musical style cultivated by its composers, which played a decisive role in the portrayal of the Habsburgs’ power and devotion.
Throughout the centuries of Habsburg rule, the region of Tyrol was subject to varying degrees of control from the imperial court. However, for a century of its history – from the ascension of Archduke Ferdinand II in 1564 until the untimely death of Sigismund Franz in 1665 – the court of Innsbruck was ruled by its own independent sovereign. During this brief chapter of Habsburg history, the Tyrolean archdukes promoted a vigorous festal and musical culture. This essay explores the musical features that distinguished each Archduke’s individual reign. For example, the tenure of Ferdinand II (r. 1564-95) was marked by excellence in liturgical music and the first flourishing of virtuosic Italian chamber music. Ferdinand’s nephew and successor, Maximilian III (r. 1602-18), cultivated a nearly exclusively religious musical culture, due to his dual position as Tyrolean Archduke and Deutschmeister of the Teutonic Order. Under Leopold V (r. 1619-32) and his wife Claudia de’ Medici, the Kapelle continued to flourish, while theatrical and chamber music again gained prominence. The pinnacle of Tyrolean musical life was reached during the reign of Ferdinand Charles (r. 1646-62), whose lavish expenditures established a splendid operatic life at court. After the death of Ferdinand Charles’s brother Sigismund Franz, the court of Innsbruck again fell under Viennese control, and most of its musicians were taken to the imperial court.
This essay explores musical connections between the Habsburg courts and the German territories of the Holy Roman Empire during the early modern era. The imperial cities of Augsburg, Nuremberg, and Regensburg, as well as the duchy/electorate of Bavaria and the electorate of Saxony, are singled out for special consideration due to their strong economic, ceremonial, dynastic, and cultural ties to the Habsburg courts. Explored in greater depth are two genres that were especially important as sites of musical influence and exchange: cycles of liturgical music for the proper of the Mass and the German Lied.
The Spanish Habsburgs presided over a vast Empire with territories in Lombardy and southern Italy as well as generous sections of the Americas. In cities as geographically distant as Madrid, Naples, and Lima, Spanish theatrical productions and other festivities reinforced political kinship and assuaged the cultural homesickness of diplomats and administrators posted far from the Iberian Peninsula. Theatrical performances became a widespread, commonly accessible, and influential vehicle of cultural transmission, in both court and public theatres across the Empire. A belief in the power of musical expression shaped conventions for the use of music in the theatre and informed the ways in which different types of songs revealed the nature of the characters onstage. Court productions for the Spanish Habsburgs and their colonial representatives responded to a dual ceremonial: on the one hand, traces of the Burgundian inheritance they shared with the Austrian Habsburgs, and on the other, Castilian style and traditions. Given the Empire’s size, not to mention the cultural diversity of the peoples it enclosed, the conventions of performance and the politics of production reveal a remarkable homogeneity. During the final half-century of Spanish Habsburg rule, dynastic occasions such as weddings and royal birthdays were celebrated with musical theatre, whether partly sung entertainments (semi-operas and zarzuelas) or fully sung opera. This unfailing connection between specifically musical theatre and dynastic recognition is key to understanding the hierarchical deployment of genres in the Spanish Habsburg orbit.