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Abstract

In this guide we present taxonomic keys for the 12 subfamilies and 117 genera of ants known to occur in Brazil, along with an illustrated glossary of technical terms. The identification keys presented here are accompanied by high-resolution photographs of representative specimens for each taxon covered, including details that aid in the understanding of complex characters. Additionally, we provide comparative information for each genus, including diagnostic morphological traits, predominant habitat occurrence, nesting and foraging strata, collection frequency, and reproductive strategy. We also provide a synopsis of the taxonomic status of each genus, including the number of known species in Brazil in comparison to their global distribution, as well as the occurrence of the ant genera across biomes and the most recent study including taxonomic tools for species identification. The main objective of this guide is to facilitate the accurate identification of ants in Brazil, providing a systematic and practical approach in accessible language for researchers, students, and entomology enthusiasts. We hope to contribute to the advancement of taxonomic, ecological, and applied knowledge of Brazilian ants, as well as provide a tool for diversity studies and environmental education, contributing to the understanding and preservation of ants in the country with the highest biodiversity on the planet.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Abstract

A remarkable new species, Pampasatyrus karri sp.n. is described from the upper valley of the river Pampas on the border of the departments of Apurímac and Ayacucho in the central Andes of Peru. It occurs in grassland puna on rocky slopes around 3500 m a.s.l. It is characterized by bright golden wing uppersides, a colour unique among the Satyrinae. It is only the third known Andean representatives of this, otherwise predominantly low to mid elevation genus associated with Brazilian and Argentinian pampa, and is most closely related, as indicated by COI data and male genitalia, to P. gorkyi found 200 km south-eastwards in Cuzco. Its discovery extends the northern range limit of the genus Pampasatyrus in the Andes.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Abstract

This study investigated the relationship between genetic and morphological evidence in a species complex of haplodiploid, near-inbred ambrosia beetles, which are also vectors of an invasive tree pathogen: Xyleborus ferrugineus, Xyleborus bispinatus, and Xyleborus impressus. The unorthodox genetic system may blur species boundaries and challenges the applicability of standard species concepts. Haplo-diploid scolytine systematics is rife with contentious species delimitation, but species limits have rarely been tested empirically. To test the congruence of morphology, genetics, and geography in species identity, we analyzed 16 morphological characters and two DNA barcodes (COI mtDNA and CAD DNA sequences) in samples from across Florida. Morphological characters used to distinguish species corresponded with phylogenetic relationships in the majority of individuals. The maximum intraspecific divergence for the COI barcoding region was up to 19%, among the largest reported for animals. The phylogenetic and morphological analyses suggest that the three species are valid, but the astonishing intraspecific genetic diversity suggests either additional cryptic species or pseudogenes.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution
In: Chrysomeloidea II (Orsodacnidae, Megalopodidae, Chrysomelidae) – Part 1
In: Chrysomeloidea II (Orsodacnidae, Megalopodidae, Chrysomelidae) – Part 2
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Abstract

Preimaginal stages of the enigmatic genus Solus Watson, 1913 are described for the first time, based on a completed life history of a representative species Solus parvifenestratus Bryk, 1944 fed with Camphora officinarum, with a report on testing of alternative potential host plants. The complete mitochondrial genomes are produced for two species within the genus and they are used to construct phylogenetic hypothesis and analyze nucleotide diversity. The alternative hypotheses derived from the molecular analyses are discussed in light of 14 morphological and biological features, the optimal result supports Solus to be the sister group of Saturniini + Attacini and justifies the establishment of the tribe Solini within the subfamily Saturniinae.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Abstract

The immature stages of the patagonian podonomine (Diptera: Chironomidae) genus Rheochlus (Diptera: Chironomidae) have been unknown although the adult stage was described over half a century ago. New pupal associations with described adults belonging to two species of Rheochlus allow better understanding of the genus, its diversity and its phylogeny. The pupa of Rheochlus insignis Brundin is the same as an unreared damaged pupal taxon designated Podochlus sp. “Canteras’‘ by Brundin and is described more completely here. Inclusion of R. insignis in a molecular phylogenetic analysis shows it to be sister to two specimens (one a male, the other pharate female) allocated previously to Podochlus but better transferred to Rheochlus. The male morphology is compatible with Rheochlus prolongatus Brundin but we refrain from asserting identity by using ‘cfr.’ prolongatus to indicate the status. Molecular evidence also provides association of the female adult and pupa that are newly described here. We validate Rheochlus as distinguished on pupa and adult, with the type-species Rheochlus insignis from Patagonian Chile and Argentina, Rheochlus prolongatus Brundin from Southern Patagonia Argentina and possibly also from central Patagonia, Rheochlus latisetus Siri & Brodin from Patagonia, and the eastern Australian Rheochlus wirthi Brundin. The latter two species remain known only from their original adult male descriptions. Strengthened support for our concept of Rheochlus as a valid genus, sister group to Podochlus, derives also from an expanded and reanalysed morphological matrix.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Abstract

Paralimnini Distant, 1908, is a notable leafhopper tribe that exhibits a wide distribution across all biogeographical regions, namely the Palearctic, Nearctic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Neotropical, and Australian regions. Among these, the Oriental region demonstrates the highest diversity of Paralimnini, with a significant portion of this diversity remaining unexplored according to recent investigations. This study focuses on examining 10 species under seven genera of the Paralimnini leafhopper tribe found in Pakistan. A comprehensive morphological study is conducted, which includes the description of two new genera, Paralimnolus gen. nov. and Lalianlus gen. nov., with P. bicolor sp. nov. and L. bifurcates sp. nov. within the tribe. The study meticulously describes and provides illustrations of all the taxa based on careful observations of specimens obtained from Pakistan. Additionally, the study furnishes an updated checklist and a key to facilitate the identification of known and new Pakistani genera belonging to the tribe Paralimnini. The present findings shed light on the diversity and distribution patterns of the Paralimnini tribe in Pakistan, particularly emphasizing the junction of the Oriental and Palearctic regions in the northern parts, as these parts of the country serve as a significant reservoir of undocumented species. The thorough documentation and available identification resources provided in this study serve as valuable references for future investigations and contribute to our knowledge of the leafhopper fauna in Pakistan.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Abstract

A new genus and species of staphylinid beetle, Cretafrica orapensis gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described using a single well-preserved impression fossil from an Upper Cretaceous fossil insect deposit, the Orapa Diamond Mine in Botswana. Cretafrica is placed in the extant subfamily Mycetoporinae based on its general habitus, typical sublimuloid medium-to-large body form, elongated head, visible ridge on ventral side of head under eyes, antennomeres increasing in length and width apically, scutellum with basal carina that is distinctly divided medially, elevated area along suture of the elytra, and presumably large metacoxae, and tapering abdomen. It differs from other Mycetoporinae by its triangular head and elytra with broadly rounded apico-lateral margins. A possible preservation distortion illustrates brush-like or fork-like mouthparts. The fossil insect may have been found in forest litter or fresh and rotting mushrooms at Orapa. It confirms the widespread distribution of mycetoporines with phytophagous or mycophagous lifestyles during the mid-Cretaceous. Moreover, like other described fossil staphylinids, the fossil portrays morphological stasis dating back to the Cretaceous. It further confirms the proposed punctuated equilibrium pattern of evolution.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution