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In: Journal of Applied Animal Ethics Research

Abstract

The aim of this article is to clarify and describe the relationships between levels of personality functioning, pathological personality traits from the borderline and narcissistic functioning, and time perspective (TP). The study was conducted online, and 210 participants completed eight questionnaires: Inventory of Personality Organization, Boredom Proneness Scale, Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire, Depressive Experience Questionnaire, and Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. The results reveal that the pathological personality functioning was consistently associated with a deviation on each dimension of TP and the Deviation from the Balanced Time Perspective (DBTP) while the higher functioning personality indicator was associated with a balanced time perspective. When accounting for all traits in the regression, pathological personality traits predicted variance of Past-Negative, Present-Hedonistic, Present-Fatalistic, and the DBTP. Borderline and narcissistic traits were associated with the DBTP but demonstrated different time perspective profiles. Borderline traits showed an overall negative TP with a tendency to seek quick and intense pleasure in the present with no regards toward the future. These results show that there can be TP profile differences between borderline personalities, depending on their specific trait profile. Impulsivity plays an important role in how borderline personalities cope with their negative temporalities. Vulnerable narcissism is characterized by a negative past with the ability to recruit the future, while grandiose narcissism denotes an overall more balanced time perspective than their vulnerable counterpart.

In: Timing & Time Perception

Summary

Distribution shift, a phenomenon in machine learning characterized by a change in input data distribution between training and testing, can reduce the predictive accuracy of deep learning models. As operator and hardware conditions at the time of training are not always consistent with those after deployment, computer vision wood identification (CVWID) models are potentially susceptible to the negative impacts of distribution shift in the field. To maximize the robustness of CVWID models, it is critical to evaluate the influence of distribution shifts on model performance. In this study, a previously published 24-class CVWID model for Peruvian timbers was evaluated on images of test specimens digitally perturbed to simulate four kinds of image variations an operator might encounter in the field including (1) red and blue color shifts to simulate sensor drift or the effects of disparate sensors; (2) resizing to simulate different magnifications that could result from using different or improperly calibrated hardware; (3) digital scratches to simulate artifacts of specimen preparation; and (4) a range of blurring effects to simulate out-of-focus images. The model was most robust to digital scratches, moderately robust to red shift and smaller areas of medium-to-severe blur, and was least robust to resizing, blue shift, and large areas of medium-to-severe blur. These findings emphasize the importance of formulating and consistently applying best practices to reduce the occurrence of distribution shift in practice and standardizing imaging hardware and protocols to ensure dataset compatibility across CVWID platforms.

Open Access
In: IAWA Journal

Abstract

Taking its cue from the Islamic Ecological Paradigm, deeply rooted in Islamic religious traditions, which emerged more than 1400 years ago, this paper reimagines the human-nonhuman relationship against the backdrop of the arguably assumed superiority of mankind in (Islamic) theological discourses. Using Qurʾānic narratives as a key point of divergence in the natural superiority of man within the idea of vicegerency, we argue that the Qurʾān’s egalitarian ethos presents animals as ‘intentional political agents’ (Pepper 2021: 30) independent of human intercession. This agency enables them to be key players in deciding the outcomes of political conundrums; in so doing, it also rebuts and destabilises arrogant anthropocentric presuppositions associated with the idea of vicegerency. We particularly read, in ‘signs themed’ Qurʾānic narratives, a dynamic relationship between humans and animals through the animal’s role as Allah’s warriors and agents against human oppressors and transgressors. Drawing on the Islamic Ecological Paradigm, Angie Pepper’s idea of intentional political agency and Sarra Tlili’s de-anthropocentric reading of the Qurʾān, we suggest that the Qurʾān robustly invites humans to reflect on the animal world by foregrounding animals as political agents while epitomising human accountability and responsibility towards them instead of establishing a relationship of dominance.

In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology
Author:

Abstract

Bees for Peace promotes pollinator protection by establishing blooming feeding sites for bees and other pollinators on the grounds of houses of worship. In Canada, the project’s primary aim was to educate people about native bees, invoking positive feelings that moved people to protect these relatively unfamiliar creatures. To do so, I developed fun, educational games and talks on the cultural history of bees, which I presented at numerous churches in the Greater Toronto Area. Despite ongoing challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, the project and its student researchers were able to partner with two churches to plant pollinator gardens. The educational activities that accompanied the care and maintenance of these gardens resulted in individuals in and around the churches experiencing an expanded sense of community as well as a heightened awareness of native pollinators and the desire to protect them.

In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology

Abstract

Origin stories reveal the myriad causes that converge to birth a new initiative. On the occasion of its tenth anniversary, this essay looks back to document the context and intellectual lineage out of which the Ecology, Spirituality, and Religion graduate program at the California Institute of Integral Studies (CIIS) emerged in 2013, and suggests some possibilities for the future of transdisciplinary education and the fields of religion and ecology (e.g. Tucker and Grim 2001), religion and nature (e.g. B. Taylor 2010), and spiritual ecology (e.g. Sponsel 2012) more broadly.

In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology

Summary

Girdling is often used as an experimental method to study source/sink controls of cambial growth. However, the phloem responses to girdling have not been well investigated. The aim of this research was to characterize the anatomical changes in the phloem and xylem of different species following trunk girdling. Different species of gymnosperm (Abies sibirica, Pinus sylvestris) and angiosperm (Alnus incana, Populus tremula) woody plants were selected. We girdled trunks during active growth and sampled tissues at two levels (1 cm and 35 cm) above the girdle at the end of the growing season. General responses to girdling were recorded for the studied species, such as increased phloem increments, parenchymatization of conducting tissues, reduction in the size of conducting elements, and an increase in the size of axial parenchyma cells in the phloem and xylem. We observed the suppression of xylogenesis in 3 out of 4 species. Differences in the structure of conducting tissues were found, which are due to species differences in the initial tissue structure. In gymnosperms, noticeable differences in the number of resin ducts in the xylem were observed between control and girdled trees. In angiosperms, we found the formation of cells with thickened cell walls in girdled trees (i.e., the formation of phloem and xylem fibers with thickened cell walls in aspen and sclereids in the phloem of alder). Based on the literature data, the observed responses may be due to both the wounding effect and the influence of the high sugar content above the girdle.

In: IAWA Journal

Summary

This study aimed to investigate and compare the non-anatomical characteristics of six Korean oak wood species (Quercus variabilis, Q. serrata, Q. mongolica, Q. dentata, Q. aliena and Q. acutissima) to provide identification keys and quality indices for the effective utilization of these species. Non-anatomical characteristics, including heartwood fluorescence, fluorescence and color of water and ethanol extracts, froth test, chrome azurol S test and burning splinter test, were evaluated according to the International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA) lists. None of the six Korean oak species displayed heartwood fluorescence or fluorescence in the ethanol extract. Only Q. serrata exhibited bright blue fluorescence in the aqueous extract. Each species showed distinct colors in both water and ethanol extracts, and the water extract of all species was darker than that of the ethanol extract. A weak positive reaction in the froth test was observed only for Q. serrata. Furthermore, Q. variabilis and Q. acutissima showed positive reactions to both heartwood and sapwood in the chrome azurol S test. The burning splinter test revealed that only Q. acutissima was transformed into charcoal. Thus, water extract fluorescence and color, ethanol extract color, froth test, chrome azurol S test, and burning splinter test can be used to identify the six Korean oak species.

In: IAWA Journal