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Septuagint Research

Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures


Edited by Wolfgang Kraus and Glenn Wooden

The past few decades have witnessed a renewed scholarly interest in the Septuagint, especially with regard to its importance for the fields of theology, Jewish studies, classics, philosophy, history of religions, linguistics, and history of literature. To provide students and scholars alike with ready access to the most recent developments, this collection of essays presents a comprehensive and representative picture of septuagintal research today. Specifically, this volume surveys methodological issues, thematic and book-centered studies focused on the Old Greek Septuagint translations, the use of these translations in the New Testament, and a call for the exploration of the theologies of the Septuagint as a bridge between the theologies of the Hebrew Bible and those of the New Testament. It brings together a variety of perspectives, from emerging voices to seasoned scholars, both English-speaking scholars working on the New English Translation of the Septuagint project and German-speaking scholars working on the Septuaginta Deutsch project. Besides editors Wolfgang Kraus and R. Glenn Wooden, the contributors are Patricia Ahearne-Kroll, Stephen Ahearne-Kroll, Claudia Bergmann, Cameron Boyd-Taylor, Ralph Brucker, Kristin De Troyer, Beate Ego, Heinz-Josef Fabry, Robert J. V. Hiebert, Karen H. Jobes, Martin Karrer, Siegfried Kreuzer, Albert Pietersma, Martin Rösel, Aaron Schart, Helmut Utzschneider, Wade Albert White, Florian Wilk, and Benjamin G. Wright III.

Paperback edition is available from the Society of Biblical Literature (


Edited by Benjamin Wright and Lawrence Wills

The notion that wisdom and apocalypticism represent fundamentally different and mutually exclusive categories of genre and worldview in early Jewish and Christian literature persists in current scholarship. The essay in this volume, the work of the Wisdom and Apocalypticism Group of the Society of Biblical Literature, challenged that generally held view as they explore the social locations and scholarly constructions of these literatures and discover an ancient reality of more porous categories and complex interrelationships. The volume draws on a broad range of Jewish and Christian texts, including 1 Enoch, Sirach, 4Qinstruction, Psalms of Solomon, James, Revelation, and Barnabas. The contributors are Ellen Bradshaw Aitken, Patrick J. Hartin, Richard A. Horsley, Matthew J. Goff, George W.E. Nickelsburg, Barbara R. Rossing, Sarah J. Tanzer, Patrick A. Tiller, Rodney A. Werline, Lawrence M. Wills and Benjamin G. Wright III.

Paperback edition is available from the Society of Biblical Literature (

Trajectories in Near Eastern Apocalyptic

A Postrabbinic Jewish Apocalypse Reader


Edited by John Reeves

Modern treatments of Jewish apocalyptic usually terminate their discussions of this literature with the triumph of Rome over nationalist rebels at the time of the Second Jewish Revolt (132-135 CE). They hence fail to appreciate the impact of the subsequent rise of scriptural authority for the Abrahamic religions and the renewed vitality of the apocalyptic genre as a favored literary vehicle for the expression of social and cultural concerns by the major Near Eastern religious communities during the second half of the first millennium CE. The present volume begins the process of righting this imbalance by providing an English-language anthology of a series of influential Jewish apocalypses emanating from the Near East from roughly the early seventh to the mid-twelfth centuries CE. Each text is newly translated into English and provided with an annotated commentary that elucidates its historical, literary, and religious contexts.

Paperback edition is available from the Society of Biblical Literature (


Jens Herzer

A little-known text of Hellenistic Judaism, 4 Baruch (or Paraleipomena Jeremiou) reflects the situation in Palestine on the eve of the Bar-Kokhba War by retelling the story of the Babylonian captivity of the Jewish people. Neglected for far too long, 4 Baruch is now made accessible to scholars and students alike through a critical edition of the Greek text, a new English translation, and a substantial commentary on this early Jewish writing of the beginning of the second century C.E. The commentary elaborates its historical and literary setting and provides a theological interpretation of its religious ideas. On the basis of his close and careful reading of the text, Jens Herzer argues for the basic integrity of 4 Baruch as a genuine Jewish work that was preserved after the war by a Christian group that also added a Christian ending.

Paperback edition is available from the Society of Biblical Literature (

Hosea 2

Metaphor and Rhetoric in Historical Perspective


Brad Kelle


Matthieu Arnold

Who was Hammurapi, and what role did his famous "law code" serve in ancient Babylonian society? Who was the mysterious Merodach-baladan, and why did the appearance of his emissaries in Jerusalem so upset Isaiah? Who was Nebuchadnezzar II, and why did he tear down the Solomonic temple and drag the people of God into exile? In short, who were the Babylonians? This engaging and informative introduction to the best of current scholarship on the Babylonians and their role in biblical history answers these and other significant questions. The Babylonians were important not only because of their many historical contacts with ancient Israel but because they and their predecessors, the Sumerians, established the philosophical and social infrastructure for most of Western Asia for nearly two millennia. Beginning and advanced students as well as biblical scholars and interested nonspecialists will read this introduction to the history and culture of the Babylonians with interest and profit.

Paperback edition available from the Society of Biblical Literature (

Emanuel Tov

Customers in North America who wish to purchase this publication, please contact Augsburg Fortress Press.

First published in 1992, Emanuel Tov’s Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible has rapidly established itself as the authoritative reference work for all those engaged in the study of the text of the Hebrew Bible.
This thoroughly revised second edition will be welcomed by students and scholars alike.

A wide range of readers will find this book accessible and indispensable. Emanuel Tov offers extensive descriptions of the major witnesses to the text of the Hebrew Bible–the Hebrew texts from Qumran, the Septuagint, the Masoretic Text–as well as the Aramaic Targumim, the Syriac translations, the Vulgate, and others.

Special attention is given to the exegetical aspects of the textual
transmission, literary issues, and the problem of the original shape of the biblical text.

Praise for the First Edition:

“Emanuel Tov is preeminent in the world in the field of Septuagint studies. This is a solid and durable work which, given its technical character, is written in a readable way.”
Frank Moore Cross, Harvard University

“Nowhere else can you find such a thorough presentation of how the Bible was transmitted in Second Temple times ... This excellently written handbook represents a major step forward for biblical studies.”
Lawrence Schiffman, New York University

“History will surely regard Emanuel Tov’s monumental work as the definitive discussion of textual criticism of this generation. A ‘must-have’ for any serious scholar of the Bible!”
Sidnie A. White, University of Nebraska

“The basic reference work on the textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible for at least the next decade. This is a magisterial work which is badly needed and masterfully done.”
Journal for the Study of Judaism

“This book will soon be viewed as a classic of biblical studies.”
Ralph W. Klein, Journal of Religion

“Replete with examples, tables, plates, lucid definitions and explanations, as well as extensive bibliographies, the volume brings together a wealth of information not previously so accessible and makes the theory and practice of textual criticism easily understandable and visually clear.”
Judith E. Sanderson, Seattle University


Lawrence J. Mykytiuk

This book establishes the first comprehensive system for evaluating potential identifications of persons mentioned in the Hebrew Bible with persons mentioned in Northwest Semitic inscriptions. It applies this system in detail to a small number of Hebrew inscriptions, the Mesha Inscription, and the Tel Dan stele. Appendixes updated through mid-2002 briefly evaluate potential identifications of over 75 biblical persons in over 90 Northwest Semitic inscriptions which are mostly contemporary with the person. Resulting identifications and non-identifications appear in six categories of strength or weakness, from unmistakable to disqualified. The final product is a first-ever corpus consisting only of inscriptions that name biblical persons. This technical book will appeal to advanced scholars, graduate students, seminarians, clergy, and others who have a working knowledge of at least one Northwest Semitic language, e.g., biblical Hebrew, and to nonspecialists interested in questions about biblical historicity and potential identifications of biblical persons in Northwest Semitic inscriptions.

See also: Lawrence J. Mykytiuk, "Corrections and Updates to Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200-539 B.C.E." Maarav 16.1 (2009): 49-132. This complete article is available without cost at

The King as Exemplar

The Function of Deuteronomy's Kingship Law in the Shaping of the Book of Psalms


Jamie Grant

This book contributes to one of the more fruitful areas of Old Testament studies in recent years: the canonical study of the Psalter. It asks why the three psalms that focus on the torah (instruction) of Yahweh (Pss 1, 19, and 119) are associated with royal psalms and suggests that the answer lies in an editorial attempt to draw attention to Deuteronomy’s kingship law (Deut 17:14–20). This focus on the Pentateuch’s paradigm for kingship is meant not only to shape the psalmic presentation of the eschatological king but also to direct the reader to a piety that every believer should emulate—the king as exemplar for the people of God. This volume will be of interest to scholars of the Psalter, Deuteronomy, and intertextual studies as well as profitable reading for anyone interested in biblical perspectives on living as the people of God.

Paperback edition is available from the Society of Biblical Literature (

Secondary Parallelism

A Study of Translation Technique in LXX Proverbs


Gerhard Tauberschmidt

The Septuagint translates the Hebrew of Proverbs freely. Therefore LXX Proverbs cannot simply be translated back into Hebrew to determine an underlying Hebrew source text. The translator's techniques and possible translational alterations must be considered along with religious, moral, social, and economic influences. This volume shows particularly how dynamic Hebrew parallelisms became more static in translation. The translator's tendency to produce closely corresponding lines is striking. Secondary Parallelism urges scholars, commentators, and Bible translators to consider these issues before using LXX Proverbs for "better" parallelisms to correct the Masoretic Hebrew Text.

Paperback edition is available from the Society of Biblical Literature (