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The Qurʾān in Context

Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu

Series:

Edited by Angelika Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai and Michael Marx

Although recent scholarship has increasingly situated the Qur'ān in the historical context of Late Antiquity, such a perspective is only rarely accompanied by the kind of microstructural literary analysis routinely applied to the Bible. The present volume seeks to redress this lack of contact between literary and historical studies. Contributions to the first part of the volume address various general aspects of the Qur’an’s political, economic, linguistic, and cultural context, while the second part contains a number of close readings of specific Qur’ānic passages in the light of Judeo-Christian tradition and ancient Arabic poetry, as well as discussions of the Qur’ān’s internal chronology and transmission history. Throughout, special emphasis is given to methodological questions.

This title is available as paperback.

Koranexegese, Grammatik und Logik

Zum Verhältnis von arabischer und aristotelischer Urteils-, Konsequenz- und Schlußlehre

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Cornelia Schöck

From its beginning in the 8th century Islamic dialectical theology ( kalām) was increasingly influenced by Peripatetical Logic. The ‘orthodox’ solutions of the main problems of Muslim theology are the result of centuries of dispute between scholars arguing on the basis of grammatical and logical arguments. This volume offers a new approach in the problems of Islamic hermeneutics and the understanding of Quraʾnic exegesis, Muslim theology and the appropriation of Peripatetical logic in the Arabic world.
Subjects included are the problems of name ( ism) and qualification ( waṣf), condition ( šarṭ) and consequence ( ğazāʾ), the whole ( kull) and the part ( baʿḍ), the general ( ʿāmm) and the special ( ḫāṣṣ), expression ( lafẓ) and matter ( mādda), signification by expression ( dalīl al-lafẓ) and signification by inference ( dalīl al-ʿaql).

Suffering in Mu‘tazilite Theology

‘Abd al-Jabbār's Teaching on Pain and Divine Justice

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Heemskerk

‘Abd al-Ğabbār (d. 1024 AD) belonged to the Bahšamiyya branch of the Basra Mu‘tazila. The Mu‘tazilites upheld the principle of divine justice, and from this perspective they attempted to explain the existence of pain and suffering.
This volume deals with ‘Abd al-Ğabbār's opinions on different aspects of pain, such as what pain is, how it is perceived, how it comes into existence, how to judge the infliction of pain and for which purpose God imposes suffering on His creatures. Attention is also given to opinions expressed by Mānkdīm and Ibn Mattawayh, disciples of ‘Abd al-Ğabbār.
Included is a historical survey of the Bahšamiyya school. The book sheds light on ‘Abd al-Ğabbār's Mu‘tazilite method in dealing with the question of the existence of human suffering.

Averroes and the Aristotelian Tradition

Sources, Constitution and Reception of the Philosophy of Ibn Rushd (1126-1198). Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium Averroicum (Cologne, 1996)

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Edited by Jan Aertsen and Gerhard Endress

Averroes the philosopher was the Commentator of Aristotle. In this, the project of his life coincided with the perception of his contemporary readers and with the esteem governing four centuries of European Aristotelianism. It has been the purpose of the 4th Symposium Averroicum to contribute to a better understanding of this philosophy: both on the basis of Averroes' works and in the light of his sources. The Symposium, held in conjunction with the 6th Editors Conference of the Averrois Opera, brought together eminent scholars and researchers on Averroes and adjacent areas. Their contributions are presented in four sections:
- The Project of Averroes
- Averroes and the Hellenistic Commentators
- Averroes, the Commentator
- Averroes and the Latin Tradition
A bibliography of editions and contributions to the text is appended (to date 1998).

World-maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca

Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science

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David King

Two remarkable Iranian world-maps were discovered in 1989 and 1995. Both are made of brass and date from 17th-century Iran. Mecca is at the centre and a highly sophisticated longitude and latitude grid enables the user to determine the direction and distance to Mecca for anywhere in the world between Andalusia and China. Prior to the discovery of these maps it was thought that such cartographic grids were conceived in Europe ca. 1910. This richly-illustrated book presents an overview of the ways in which Muslims over the centuries have determined the sacred direction towards Mecca ( qibla) and then describes the two world-maps in detail. The author shows that the geographical data derives from a 15th-century Central Asian source and that the mathematics underlying the grid was developed in 9th-century Baghdad.

Aristoteles' De Anima

Eine verlorene spätantike Paraphrase in arabischer und persischer Überlieferung. Arabischer Text nebst Kommentar, quellengeschichtlichen Studien und Glossaren.

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Arnzen

This publication deals with an anonymous Arabic paraphrase of Aristotle's De Anima. The paraphrase, which was translated into Persian in the thirteenth century, is to be considered as the earliest testimony of Arabo-Islamic interest in Aristotelian psychology.
The first part of the book is concerned with the Arabic and Persian manuscripts and testimonies, the Greek sources of Late Antiquity, and the question of the date and identity of the author. The second part includes a critical edition with a German translation followed by a philological and philosophical commentary in the fourth part.
The volume is of special interest for the historian of late antique, post-Alexandrian (Byzantine), and early Islamic philosophy as well as for Graeco-Arabic lexicography.

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Michel Lagarde

This work contains indexes of the proper names and the subjects of the Great Commentary of Fa hr al-Dîn al-Râzî, which comprises 32 volumes and forms an immense encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, invaluable for the knowledge of Classical Islam.
The work is based on the Beirut edition (1981), but it contains a synopsis which allows for the use of the editions of Cairo (1933) and Teheran (n.d.).
In the introduction, one finds a synthesis of the text's important elements, the statement of exegetical principles of the Great Commentary, and information relating to its chronology and authorship.

Edited by Lacombe, Birkenmajer, Dulong, Franceschini and Minio-Paluello

In the years 1961-1972 Marie-Thérèse d'Alverny published in Archives d'Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Age 11 fascicles of a study of the codicological tradition of the Latin Avicenna. In these she identifies and describes more than 150 Latin manuscripts of the Avicennan corpus preserved in European libraries, thus laying the foundation for work later published in the Avicenna Latinus series. These fascicles are photomechanically reprinted here, together with hitherto unpublished material concerning another 30 manuscripts compiled from Professor d'Alverny's papers by Simone van Riet and Pierre Jodogne. The compilers have also added a list of corrigenda as well as an index of manuscripts discussed and an index of names and works.

Die Araber und die antike Wissenschaftstheorie

[Übersetzung aus dem Ungarischen von Johanna Till und Gábor Kerekes]

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Miklos Maróth

Die Araber und die antike Wissenschaftstheorie discusses the history of the development of Aristotelian argumentation in the Alexandrian neoplatonic school and in Arab philosophy, focussing on the Tabula Porphyriana. It treats the ever present role of specific questions in the Greek and Arab scholarly tradition.
In the first part the three problems of the Eisagoge are explored: whether it is, what it is, how it is. The author shows that these questions were interpreted differently by various philosophical schools. The book then discusses another group of issues ( whether it is, what it is, how and why it is), which determined the argumentation, the axiomatic ordering of the sciences, and concludes with a demonstration on the basis of concrete examples of how the fully-developed argumentation theory was employed in practice.

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Sabur Ibn-Sahl

Edited by Oliver Kahl

This book comprises a philological analysis and critical edition of an undated, anonymous Arabic pharmacopoeia, preserved in the form of a unique manuscript.
A study of the manuscript showed that it represents the oldest hand-written witness of Arabic pharmacology known to date, and one of the earliest pharmacopoeias ever written in Arabic, viz. the small, and authentic version of an otherwise lost or, in the course of transmission, largely transmuted Aqrābādhīn originally composed by the Christian physician Sābūr b. Sahl (d. 255/869).
Following a brief introduction, the manuscript is described, analysed and illustrated by ten facsimiles. A biographical sketch of the author is followed by a critical edition of the manuscript. Philological observations, a glossary of technical terms, and indices are appended to the edition.