Browse results

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 82 items for :

  • Economic History x
  • Migration History x
Clear All

Series:

Virgil Ciocîltan

The inclusion of the Black Sea basin into the long-distance trade network – with its two axes of the Silk Road through the Golden Horde (Urgench-Sarai-Tana/Caffa) and the Spice Road through the Ilkhanate (Ormuz-Tabriz-Trebizond) – was the two Mongol states’ most important contribution to making the sea a “crossroads of international commerce”.
The closest recorded working relationship between European and Asian powers in the medieval period, achieved by the joint efforts of the Chinggisid rulers and the Italian merchant republics, was not realised via the usual geographic channels of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Fertile Crescent, but rather by roundabout routes to the Black Sea. Thus at the same time as the sea fulfilled its function as a crossroads of long-distance Eurasian trade, it was also a bypass.

Series:

Friedrich Lenger

In European Cities in the Modern Era, 1850-1914 Friedrich Lenger analyses the demographic and economic preconditions of European urbanization, compares the extent to which Europe’s cities were characterized by heterogeneity with respect to the social, national and religious composition of its population and asks in which way differences resulting from this heterogeneity were resolved either peacefully or violently.

Using this general perspective and extending the scope by including Eastern and Southern Europe the dominant view of Europe’s prewar cities as islands of modernity is challenged and the ubiquity of urban violence established as a central analytical problem.