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Secondary Content

The Semantics and Pragmatics of Side Issues

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Edited by Daniel Gutzmann and Katharina Turgay

In addition to expressing some main content, utterances often convey secondary content, which is content that is not their “main point”, but which rather provides side or background information, is less prominent than the main content, and shows distinctive behavior with respect to its role in discourse structure and which discourse moves it licenses. This volume collects original research papers on the semantics and pragmatics of secondary content. By covering a broad variety of linguistic phenomena that convey secondary content – including expressives, various particles, adverbials, pronouns, quotations, and dogwhistle language – the contributions show that secondary content is pervasive throughout different aspects of natural language and providing new insight into the nature of secondary content through new semantic and pragmatic analyses.
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Neo-Latin and the Vernaculars

Bilingual Interactions in the Early Modern Period

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Edited by Florian Schaffenrath and Alexander Winkler

The early modern world was profoundly bilingual: alongside the emerging vernaculars, Latin continued to be pervasively used well into the 18th century. Authors were often active in and conversant with both vernacular and Latin discourses. The language they chose for their writings depended on various factors, be they social, sociolinguist, cultural, or merely aesthetic, and had an impact on how and by whom these texts were received. Due to the increasing interest in Neo-Latin studies, early modern bilingualism has recently been attracting attention. This volumes provides a series of case studies focusing on key aspects of early modern bilingualism, such as language choice, translations/rewritings, and the interferences between vernacular and Neo-Latin discourses.

Contributors are Giacomo Comiati, Ronny Kaiser, Teodoro Katinis, Francesco Lucioli, Giuseppe Marcellino, Marianne Pade, Maxim Rigaux, Florian Schaffenrath, Claudia Schindler, Federica Signoriello, Thomas Velle, Alexander Winkler.
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Beata Sheyhatovitch

In The distinctive terminology in Šarḥ al-Kāfiya by Raḍī l-Dīn al-ʾAstarābāḏī Beata Sheyhatovitch presents a structured and systematic study of a seminal treatise in the medieval Arabic linguistic tradition. The treatise’s author, al-ʾAstarābāḏī (d. circa 1289), is widely considered the most brilliant grammarian of the later classical period. The author's analysis of his terminology reveals the extent of his originality, and of the influence that other Islamic sciences (logic, jurisprudence, theology) had on his writings.

The book is innovative in its comprehensiveness and its unique approach, which uses texts from various medieval Islamic disciplines in clarifying the terminology. It provides scholars and ordinary readers with tools for a deeper understanding of al-ʾAstarābāḏī as well as other medieval Arab grammarians.
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Beata Sheyhatovitch

Abstract

This chapter surveys a series of seemingly synonymous terms referring to the form-meaning relation: maʿnā ‘meaning’ (that refers in the vast majority of cases to a meaning which is relatively abstract), dalāla/madlūl ‘signification/ signified [meaning]’ and their derivatives (that are often used to speak of a mental representation of a concrete object signified by linguistic elements, and also in distinguishing among different types of signification), musammā ‘the named one’ (used to refer to an entity denoted by a proper noun or to a concrete referent of a word), maḍmūn ‘content’ (that mostly refers to the content of a clause or a clause-like element, or the content of a predicate in a sentence/clause). The examples presented in this chapter illustrate the important role of semantics in al-ʾAstarābāḏī’s writing.

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Beata Sheyhatovitch

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This chapter analyzes two ostensibly close terms that refer to factors/elements which are secondary and/or transient in comparison to others: ṭaraʾān ‘pouncing’, used in the juridical literature as early as in the 4/10th century, and ʿurūḍ ‘accidentality’, a logical term. The chapter clarifies the differences between the two terms and surveys the main contexts in which they appear.

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Beata Sheyhatovitch

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This chapter is dedicated to al-ʾAstarābāḏī’s theory of waḍʿ ‘coinage’. It explores the sources of this theory, terminology related to it and its applications in linguistic discussions. This theory allows to explain most linguistic phenomena by the coiner’s intention, but al-ʾAstarābāḏī’s sensitivity to mismatches between the coiner’s intention and actual usage is also highlighted. In addition to signification by coinage (which is how most linguistic elements are created and given meaning), attention is given to al-ʾAstarābāḏī’s notions of signification “by nature” (bi-l-ṭabʿi/ṭabʿan) and signification “by means of reason” (ʿaqlan).

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Beata Sheyhatovitch

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Beata Sheyhatovitch

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Beata Sheyhatovitch

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This chapter presents some general tendencies that can be discerned in al-ʾAstarābāḏī’s terminology: a tendency towards accurate formulations; a tendency towards abstract terminology (frequently created by the addition of the suffix -iyya to less abstract grammatical terms or to non-technical words); the use of terms that are usually viewed as Kūfan; using terms from other Islamic disciplines (logic and jurisprudence).

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Saussure and Sechehaye: Myth and Genius

A Study in the History of Linguistics and the Foundations of Language

Pieter Seuren

In this book, Pieter Seuren argues that Ferdinand de Saussure has been grossly overestimated over the past century, while his junior colleague Albert Sechehaye has been undeservedly ignored. Saussure was anything but the great innovator he is generally believed to be. Sechehaye was a genius providing many trenchant analyses and anticipating many modern insights. The lives and works of both men are discussed in detail and they are placed in the cultural, intellectual and social environment of their day. Much attention is paid to the theoretical issues involved, in particular to the notion and history of structuralism, to the great subject-predicate debate that dominated linguistic theory at the time, and to questions of methodology in the theory of language.