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Das Konzil von Chalcedon und die Kirche

Konflikte und Normierungsprozesse im 5. und 6. Jahrhundert

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Sandra Leuenberger-Wenger

In Das Konzil von Chalcedon und die Kirche Sandra Leuenberger-Wenger offers a new perspective on the council of Chalcedon, analyzing the rich material of its acts. Leuenberger-Wenger shows the entanglement of the Christological debate with other fields of conflict concerning the status and authority of different episcopal sees and of monasticism in the church. The study emphasizes the importance of the traditionally neglected second part of the council with its canons and resolutions and argues that these regulations had a deep impact on the structures of the church as well as on the reception of the council and its definition of faith. The evaluation of a wide range of sources places the refusal of the definition of faith in the broader context of the transformation processes of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity and the rejection of an increasingly institutionalized Byzantine Church.

In Das Konzil von Chalcedon und die Kirche entwirft Sandra Leuenberger-Wenger anhand der Konzilsakten ein neues Bild von der Bedeutung dieses Konzils für die Kirche. Sie zeigt die Verknüpfung des christologischen Streits mit weiteren kirchlichen Konfliktfeldern wie dem Status und der Autorität einzelner Bischofssitze und des Mönchtums. Die Untersuchung betont die Bedeutung des zweiten Konzilsteils für die Entwicklung der Kirche und macht deutlich, wie die Regulierungen auf kirchenpolitischer und struktureller Ebene die Rezeption des Konzils entscheidend mitbestimmten. Die Auswertung eines breiten Quellenmaterials verortet das Konzil und seine schwierige Rezeption in den spätantiken Transformationsprozessen des Römischen Reichs im Übergang zum Mittelalter und deutet die Konflikte um die Glaubensdefinition im Horizont der umfassenderen Ablehnung einer zunehmend institutionalisierten byzantinischen Reichskirche.

Armenia between Byzantium and the Orient

Celebrating the Memory of Karen Yuzbashian (1927–2009)

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Edited by Bernard Outtier, Cornelia B. Horn, Basil Lourie and Alexey Ostrovsky

This volume commemorating the late Armenian scholar Karen Yuzbashyan comprises studies of mediaeval Armenian culture, including the reception of biblical and parabiblical texts, theological literature, liturgy, hagiography, manuscript studies, Church history and secular history, and Christian art and material culture. Special attention is paid to early Christian and late Jewish texts and traditions preserved in documents written in Armenian. Several contributions focus on the interactions of Armenia with other cultures both within and outside the Byzantine Commonwealth: Greek, Georgian, Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, and Iranian. Select contributions may serve as initial reference works for their respective topics (the catalogue of Armenian khachkars in the diaspora and the list of Armenian Catholicoi in Tzovk’).

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Georges Tchalenko

Translator Emma Loosley Leeming, John Tchalenko, Emma Loosley Leeming and John Tchalenko

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Chris L. de Wet and Wendy Mayer

Abstract

This chapter introduces the themes and approaches exemplified in the volume’s chapters on John Chrysostom, his life and works. It argues that three trends, in particular, may be observed in the essays: redescriptive biography, which explores the discursively-constructed Chrysostom and leaves behind the “historical” John; development and utilisation of new and alternative interdisciplinary models for dealing with socio-historical data; and a reframing of how we view Chrysostom and theology. These trends, which are set here within their larger context, intertwine with and sometimes lead developments within the field of late antiquity.

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Jonathan P. Stanfill

Abstract

Walking in the street functioned as a critical site for the public performance of identity in the Roman world. Doing so in the company of others, whether as part of an entourage or a procession, was especially important for visibly establishing one’s membership in a patronage network or politeia. For Christians in late antiquity, liturgical processions were similarly utilised as a tool for reifying group identity and demarcating the boundaries between different ecclesial communities. John Chrysostom, in particular, recognised the significance of processions for cultivating his vision for Nicene Christianity. As this chapter will demonstrate, one overlooked feature of Chrysostom’s citywide liturgical processions was the participation of Nicene Goths. However, it is also shown that their participation would have been viewed with suspicion and hostility by a faction that believed the Goths were uncivilised and heretical. Thus, the participation of the Goths in Chrysostom’s processions provides another avenue by which we can see the fault lines between the bishop and his antagonists as they competed over the boundaries of the Nicene church in Constantinople. Yet there is no record of the bishop’s rationale for incorporating them. This chapter, therefore, draws upon Judith Butler’s theory of performative assembly to interpret the visible participation of the Goths in Chrysostom’s processions as a speech act in its own right; one that could function both as the embodied performance of Nicene identity by the Goths and the public enactment of Chrysostom’s inclusive brand of Nicene Christianity.

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Peter C. Moore

Abstract

The title refers to two metaphors from Chrysostom’s Homily 15 on Matthew. In the course of expounding the Beatitudes, Chrysostom argues that godly affections (amongst other things) can bind heaven-bound Christians together in the midst of trouble. He mentions first the strength of a “woven” chain which comes from a combination of well-ordered “strands,” in this case a variety of emotions and attitudes. He also calls Christians a rank of troops which gains its power from a combination of well-ordered soldiers. The point is that there is safety in numbers and rightly oriented affections represent vital protection for a Christian standing side by side with other believers: bound together and bound for heaven. In this study of Chrysostom’s exploitation of mutual emotions in the Christian church in complex and anxious times, the author exploits data from his doctoral project which argued for the influence of Chrysostom upon the preaching of John Calvin. Turning his attention to the idea of mutual emotions in Chrysostom, Moore first defines “a community of emotional mutuality.” He then offers a sketch of Chrysostom’s attitudes to emotions overall, including his stance towards the stronger emotions or “passions.” Next he explores the motivating power of emotions and then Chrysostom’s ambitions for emotion in creating communities of emotional mutuality. Finally, Moore raises the possibility of a contemporary application for Chrysostom’s pastoral strategy in our own complex and uncertain times.

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Jessica Wright

Abstract

John Chrysostom often presented himself as a physician of the soul. He performed psychic therapy through consolation, encouragement to overcome the passions, and instruction in ascetic discipline. He also drew regularly upon his medical learning to provide detailed metaphors of sickness and healing. Like many preachers of his generation, he was steeped in classical learning, which included the naturalistic medical tradition. This chapter examines the attention that Chrysostom pays to the brain and the nervous system. Largely neglected in studies of the late-antique body, the brain and nerves were, as primary instruments of the rational and governing part of the soul, central to fourth-century anthropology, and also to the political imagination. Using a framework adopted from history and philosophy of medicine, this chapter argues that Chrysostom appropriates a medical model of the brain and nervous system in order to situate himself as a physician not only of the individual soul, but of the ecclesial body as a whole. Interpreting Christ as the “brain,” which distributes spirit to the members through the nerves, Chrysostom destabilises the boundaries of individual bodies in order to emphasise their mutual interdependence, while at the same time reinforcing the boundaries of the church. The nervous system supplies a model of organic hierarchy, through which Chrysostom might establish a norm, as well as a category of deviance, with regard to participation in the body of the church.