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Law in West German Democracy

Seventy Years of History as Seen Through German Courts

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Hugh Ridley

Law in West German Democracy relates the history of the Federal Republic of Germany as seen through a series of significant trials conducted between 1947 and 2017, explaining how these trials came to take place, the legal issues which they raised, and their importance to the development of democracy in a country slowly emerging from a murderous and criminal régime. It thus illustrates the central issues of the new republic. If, as a Minister for Justice once remarked, crime can be seen as ‘the reverse image of any political system, the shadow cast by the social and economic structures of the day’, it is natural to use court cases to illuminate the eventful history of the Federal Republic’s first seventy years.

Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy

The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs in the Early Cold War

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Edited by Alison Kraft and Carola Sachse

From 1957 onwards, the Pugwash Conferences brought together elite scientists from across ideological and political divides to work towards disarmament. Through a series of national case studies - Austria, China, Czechoslovakia, East and West Germany, the US and USSR – this volume offers a critical reassessment of the development and work of “Pugwash” nationally, internationally, and as a transnational forum for Track II diplomacy. This major new collection of work reveals the difficulties that Pugwash scientists encountered as they sought to reach across the blocs, create a channel for East-West dialogue and realize on the project’s founding aim of influencing state actors. Uniquely, the book affords a sense of the contingent and contested process by which the network-like organization took shape around the conferences.

Contributors are Gordon Barrett, Matthew Evangelista, Silke Fengler, Alison Kraft, Fabian Lüscher, Doubravka Olšáková, Geoffrey Roberts, Paul Rubinson, and Carola Sachse.

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Edited by Karin Priem and Frederik Herman

Fabricating Modern Societies: Education, Bodies, and Minds in the Age of Steel, edited by Karin Priem and Frederik Herman, offers new interdisciplinary and transnational perspectives on the history of industrialization and societal transformation in early twentieth-century Luxembourg. The individual chapters focus on how industrialists addressed a large array of challenges related to industrialization, borrowing and mixing ideas originating in domains such as corporate identity formation, mediatization, scientification, technological innovation, mechanization, capitalism, mass production, medicalization, educationalization, artistic production, and social utopia, while competing with other interest groups who pursued their own goals. The book looks at different focus areas of modernity, and analyzes how humans created, mediated, and interacted with the technospheres of modern societies. Contributors: Klaus Dittrich, Irma Hadzalic, Frederik Herman, Enric Novella, Ira Plein, Françoise Poos, Karin Priem, and Angelo Van Gorp.

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Edited by Niklas Bernsand and Barbara Törnquist-Plewa

In Cultural and Political Imaginaries in Putin’s Russia scholars scrutinise developments in official symbolical, cultural and social policies as well as the contradictory trajectories of important cultural, social and intellectual trends in Russian society after the year 2000. Engaging experts on Russia from several academic fields, the book offers case studies on the vicissitudes of cultural policies, political ideologies and imperial visions, on memory politics on the grassroot as well as official levels, and on the links between political and national imaginaries and popular culture in fields as diverse as fashion design and pro-natalist advertising. Contributors are Niklas Bernsand, Lena Jonson, Ekaterina Kalinina, Natalija Majsova, Olga Malinova, Alena Minchenia, Elena Morenkova-Perrier, Elena Rakhimova-Sommers, Andrei Rogatchevski, Tomas Sniegon, Igor Torbakov, Barbara Törnquist-Plewa, and Yuliya Yurchuk.

Europe and China in the Cold War

Exchanges Beyond the Bloc Logic and the Sino-Soviet Split

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Edited by Janick Marina Schaufelbuehl, Marco Wyss and Valeria Zanier

Europe and China in the Cold War studies Sino-European relations from the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949 to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Based on new multi-archival research, the international authorship presents and analyses diplomatic and personal relationships between Europe and China at the political, economic, military, cultural, and technological levels.
In going beyond existing historiography, the book comparatively focuses on the relations of both Eastern and Western Europe with the PRC, and adopts a global history approach that also includes non-state and transnational actors. This will allow the reader to learn that the bloc logic and the Sino-Soviet split were indeed influential, yet not all-determining factors in the relations between Europe and China.

Mozambique on the Move

Challenges and Reflections

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Edited by Sheila Pereira Khan, Maria Paula Meneses and Bjørn Enge Bertelsen

Being a first of its kind, this volume comprises a multi-disciplinary exploration of Mozambique’s contemporary and historical dynamics, bringing together scholars from across the globe. Focusing on the country’s vibrant cultural, political, economic and social world – including the transition from the colonial to the postcolonial era – the book argues that Mozambique is a country still emergent, still unfolding, still on the move.
Drawing on the disciplines of history, literature studies, anthropology, political science, economy and art history, the book serves not only as a generous introduction to Mozambique but also as a case study of a southern African country.

Contributors are: Signe Arnfred, Bjørn Enge Bertelsen, José Luís Cabaço, Ana Bénard da Costa, Anna Maria Gentili, Ana Margarida Fonseca, Randi Kaarhus, Sheila Pereira Khan, Maria Paula Meneses, Lia Quartapelle, Amy Schwartzott, Leonor Simas-Almeida, Anne Sletsjøe, Sandra Sousa, Linda van de Kamp.

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Maximilian Graf and Wolfgang Mueller

This chapter is the first scholarly approach to Austrian-Chinese relations in the Cold War. Until regaining full sovereignty in 1955, Austria was not allowed to establish, without permission of the Four Powers, diplomatic relations with countries that were not members of the United Nations (UN). Therefore, the country, unlike Switzerland in 1950, did not recognize the People’s Republic of China (PRC) right after its creation and the existing legation with the Republic of China in Nanjing was closed down. After 1955, neutral Austria followed the general practice of not officially recognizing the communist part of divided countries. The first unofficial Austrian-PRC interactions of the 1950s and 1960s largely aimed at establishing economic contacts. Following an international trend in the context of the PRC joining the UN, Vienna recognized the Beijing regime in 1971. Austria quickly reacted to China’s economic re-orientation starting in 1979. Cultural exchanges (and later, tourism) were used as soft-power instruments for raising the PRC’s interest in trade with Austria. Like in relations with the Soviet Union, Austria increasingly pursued a neutralist policy toward the PRC, focusing on economic benefits, while mentioning humanitarian misgivings only on the sidelines of high-level encounters. With Taiwan, neutral Austria does currently not maintain diplomatic relations.

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Sofia Graziani

Since the very early days of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), official youth organizations played a prominent role in both domestic politics and China’s outward strategy serving as a tool for the realization of the Chinese Communist Party’s goals. This chapter examines the political role of the Communist Youth League (CYL) in Mao’s China with a focus on external exchanges developed in the context of the relative peace and stability that followed the Korean War. After providing an overview of the CYL’s role and mission in the newly established PRC, the chapter delves into the analysis of the international dimension of ‘youth work’ and attempts to reconstruct the PRC’s engagement with Soviet-dependent international youth organizations. It shows that the World Federation of Democratic Youth provided the newly established PRC with precious opportunities to not only promote a peaceful and friendly image of China globally, but also to build contacts and develop exchanges with Western European representatives, allowing the development of Sino–European cultural and political dialogue at a time of intense Cold War.

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Margaret K. Gnoinska

The chapter analyses the role and significance of the Sino-Polish Joint Shipping Venture dubbed Chipolbrok that was established in 1951 to further bilateral maritime relations. The author argues that the venture served as a constant in the Sino-Polish relationship when state, party, economic, military, and cultural ties hit rock bottom once Poland officially sided with Moscow in the Sino-Soviet split. Despite their ideological differences, China and Poland regarded the venture to be economically and politically useful. Chipolbrok’s unbroken continuity served as a conduit for China to gain allies in competition with the USSR and to disseminate propaganda of Maoist thought. Chipolbrok also allowed Warsaw some autonomy in interactions with Beijing and a stronger foothold in China during the Cultural Revolution, thereby offering an opportunity to witness first-hand the political, social, and economic transformation that was taking place throughout China. In turn, such knowledge provided the Poles with expertise and some leverage vis-à-vis its Soviet bloc counterparts and even the USSR. Overall, institutions such as Chipolbrok served as vehicles for smaller countries like Poland to have some autonomy in their interactions with China, which were otherwise controlled by Moscow and its efforts to coordinate foreign policy within the communist bloc.

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Edited by Janick Marina Schaufelbuehl, Marco Wyss and Valeria Zanier