Robert Kilwardby’s Science of Logic

A Thirteenth-Century Intensional Logic

Series:

Paul Thom

Paul Thom’s book presents Kilwardby’s science of logic as a body of demonstrative knowledge about inferences and their validity, about the semantics of non-modal and modal propositions, and about the logic of genus and species. This science is thoroughly intensional. It grounds the logic of inference on that in virtue of which the inference holds. It bases the truth conditions of propositions on relations between conceptual entities. It explains the logic of genus and species through the notion of essence.
Thom interprets this science as a formal logic of intensions with its own proof theory and semantics. This comprehensive reconstruction of Kilwardby’s logic shows the medieval master to be one of the most interesting logicians of the thirteenth century.

Understanding Medieval Latin with the Help of Middle Dutch

Magistri Symonis (?) Questiones secunde partis Doctrinalis Alexandri de Villa Dei First Critical Edition from the Manuscript with Introduction, Appendices and Indexes

Series:

Edited by E.P. Bos

How advanced students in the 15th century learned to understand Latin with the help of Middle Dutch becomes clear in Master Simon’s (?) commentary in the form of questions on the famous medieval didactical poem on grammar Doctinale of Alexander de Villa Dei. The master discusses notions such as the six cases of Latin (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative and ablative), construction, impediments of construction, and participles. The author has a conceptualist approach of language and criticizes interpretations by realists (Modists). He refers to other important medieval grammars, viz. Commentary on Priscian attributed to Peter Helias, Compendium de modis significandi attributed to Thomas of Erfurt, the Metrista, the Regulae Puerorum and the Florista.

Ancient Texts and Modern Readers

Studies in Ancient Hebrew Linguistics and Bible Translation

Series:

Edited by Gideon Kotzé, Christian S. Locatell and John A. Messarra

The chapters of this volume address a variety of topics that pertain to modern readers’ understanding of ancient texts, as well as tools or resources that can facilitate contemporary audiences’ interpretation of these ancient writings and their language. In this regard, they cover subjects related to the fields of ancient Hebrew linguistics and Bible translation. The chapters apply linguistic insights and theories to elucidate elements of ancient texts for modern readers, investigate how ancient texts help modern readers to interpret features in other ancient texts, and suggest ways in which translations can make the language and conceptual worlds of ancient texts more accessible to modern readers. In so doing, they present the results of original research, identify new lines and topics of inquiry, and make novel contributions to modern readers’ understanding of ancient texts.

Contributors are Alexander Andrason, Barry L. Bandstra, Reinier de Blois, Lénart J. de Regt, Gideon R. Kotzé, Geoffrey Khan, Christian S. Locatell, Kristopher Lyle, John A. Messarra, Cynthia L. Miller-Naudé, Jacobus A. Naudé, Daniel Rodriguez, Eep Talstra, Jeremy Thompson, Cornelius M. van den Heever, Herrie F. van Rooy, Gerrit J. van Steenbergen, Ernst Wendland, Tamar Zewi.

Series:

Mira Grubic

Abstract

This chapter discusses the presupposition of German auch (“too”). While secondary meanings associated with other triggers can often be informative, additive particles require their presupposition to be salient at the time of utterance. According to one account, additives require a parallel proposition to be salient (e.g. Beaver & Zeevat 2007). Another account suggests that only another individual needs to be salient, while the remainder of the presupposition can be accommodated (e.g. Heim 1992). In this chapter, an experiment comparing these two accounts is presented and discussed. It is argued that the second account is better suited to explain the results.

Series:

Stefan Hinterwimmer

Abstract

In this paper I show that the Bavarian discourse particle fei, in contrast to discourse particles like doch, cannot be added to a sentence denoting a proposition p if the addressee has uttered a sentence entailing that she believes that not p. If it follows from general background assumptions or can be inferred from the addressee’s behavior that she believes that not p, in contrast, the addition of fei is felicitous. Likewise, fei can be added to a sentence denoting a proposition p if not p is presupposed or conversationally or conventionally implicated by a sentence that the addressee has previously uttered.

Series:

Claudia Borgonovo

Abstract

There is a subtype of concessive clauses (CC s), event related CC s, that shows the classical traits of central adverbial clauses (Haegeman 2010, 2012). Event related CC s share with all other CC types the fact that they convey not at-issue content: they project under operators and can be dismissed. As a result, event-related CCS may never be focused, either informationally or contrastively. I derive this property from the impossibility of building an alternative set and excluding all alternatives but one. Taxonomically, e-related CC s are backgrounded, secondary assertions, since they satisfy the defining traits of neither presuppositions nor CI s.

Series:

Patrícia Amaral

Abstract

This chapter examines the morphosyntactic and semantic/pragmatic properties of descriptive pronouns in European Portuguese, a set of NP s that refer to the addressee and are formed by the definite article and a noun. These forms display a bundle of conventional meaning components not previously described: (i) they refer to the addressee (deictic component), (ii) the property conveyed by the noun is predicated of the addressee (property component), and (iii) the speaker expresses social distance towards the addressee (expressive component). While the deictic meaning is primary content, the property and expressive meanings are secondary contents. I analyze descriptive pronouns as mixed use-conditional items and discuss the theoretical status of their secondary contents.

Series:

Robert Henderson and Elin McCready

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the semantics and pragmatics of dogwhistles, namely expressions that send one message to an outgroup while at the same time sending a second (often taboo, controversial, or inflammatory) message to an ingroup. There are three questions that need to be resolved to understand the semantics and pragmatics of the phenomenon at hand: (i) What kind of meaning is dogwhistle content—implicature, conventional implicature, etc; (ii) are dogwhistles uniform or are their subtypes, and (iii) what is the correct semantic / pragmatic analysis of dogwhistles. In particular, we argue against a conventional implicature-based account of dogwhistles and instead propose an alternative, purely pragmatic, game-theoretic, account combining aspects of McCready 2012, Burnett 2016; 2017. This proposal is used to analysis two, novel subclasses of dogwhistle that we describe.

Series:

Elena Castroviejo and Berit Gehrke

Abstract

This chapter is concerned with intensification as triggered by subsective evaluative good in Catalan (in examples such as una bona dosi ‘a good dose’). Its main focus is on providing an account of the fact that intensification only comes about in positive polarity environments. We first entertain an analysis based on the idea that positive polarity is the result of a mismatch of meanings contributed at different dimensions, but end up supporting an alternative in which the dimensions of evaluation of the noun play a crucial role in giving rise to intensification. More specifically, intensification arises when an object is only evaluated according to one dimension. Interestingly, uni-dimensionality is not preserved under negation, which prevents intensification from arising, and, in turn, makes positive polarity an illusion.

Series:

Osamu Sawada

Abstract

This paper investigates the interpretations of the embedded expressive motto in Japanese. I argue that the expressive motto which is embedded under an attitude predicate can be speaker-oriented only when there is a deontic modal in the main clause and that there is a shift from a conventional implicature (CI) to a secondary at-issue entailment at a clausal level if the embedded motto is subject-oriented. This paper also examines cases where the expressive motto and another expressive (e.g., honorific/diminutive/pejorative) are embedded and claims that, unlike Zazaki indexicals (Anand & Nevins 2004), expressives do not always shift together.