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Markian Prokopovych, Carl Bethke and Tamara Scheer

The Habsburg Empire often features in scholarship as a historical example of how language diversity and linguistic competence were essential to the functioning of the imperial state. Focusing critically on the urban-rural divide, on the importance of status for multilingual competence, on local governments, schools, the army and the urban public sphere, and on linguistic policies and practices in transition, this collective volume provides further evidence for both the merits of how language diversity was managed in Austria-Hungary and the problems and contradictions that surrounded those practices. The book includes contributions by Pieter M. Judson, Marta Verginella, Rok Stergar, Anamarija Lukić, Carl Bethke, Irina Marin, Ágoston Berecz, Csilla Fedinec, István Csernicskó, Matthäus Wehowski, Jan Fellerer, and Jeroen van Drunen.

Storytelling as Narrative Practice

Ethnographic Approaches to the Tales We Tell

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Edited by Elizabeth Falconi and Kathryn Graber

Telling stories is one of the fundamental things we do as humans. Yet in scholarship, stories considered to be “traditional” such as myths, folk tales, and epics, have often been analyzed separately from the narratives of personal experience that we all tell on a daily basis. In Storytelling as Narrative Practice, editors Elizabeth Falconi and Kathryn Graber argue that storytelling is best understood by erasing this analytic divide. Chapter authors carefully examine language use in-situ, drawing on in-depth knowledge gained from long-term fieldwork, to present rich and nuanced analyses of storytelling-as-narrative-practice across a diverse range of global contexts. Each chapter takes a holistic ethnographic approach to show the practices, processes, and social consequences of telling stories.

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Edited by Angela Ralli

This volume provides an unprecedented collection of data from Asia Minor Greek, namely from Cappadocian, Pharasiot, Silliot, Smyrniot, Aivaliot, Bithynian, Pontic, Propontis Tsakonian and the dialect of Adrianoupolis. It offers fresh and original reflections on the study of morphology, dialectology and language contact by examining issues regarding inflection, derivation and compounding, dealt with by Metin Bağrıaçık, Marianna Gkiouleka, Aslı Göksel, Mark Janse, Brian D. Joseph, Petros Karatsareas, Nikos Koutsoukos, Io Manolessou, Theodore Markopoulos, Dimitra Melissaropoulou, Nikos Pantelidis and Angela Ralli. An in-depth investigation of phenomena aims to increase our understanding of language change. They result either from a natural evolution of Asia Minor Greek, or from the interaction between the fusional Greek and the agglutinative Turkish or the semi-analytical Romance.

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Marianna Gkiouleka

Abstract

This chapter explores a number of adverbial structures that are used by the speakers of Pontic dialect, an “inner Asia-Minor dialect”, in order to answer the question “Where?”, to describe space. To this end, it focuses on data that are driven from both written and spoken sources. I address the structures and dynamics of adverbial constructions that capture the perception of space. More specifically, I investigate a broad number of [Adv Adv] constructions that are attested innovations of this dialect, consisting of a set of morphologically simple adverbs and which I view as outcomes of a compounding process. Throughout the different sub-sections of the chapter, I address the following questions: i) what is adverb as a category; ii) what constitutes an adverb and how an adverb is formed; iii) how is space expressed through this part-of-speech category; iv) which morphological processes are activated in order to create adverbial constructs in Pontic.

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Angela Ralli

Abstract

This article deals with the morphological topics of prefixoids and verb borrowing in Aivaliot, a dialect spoken before 1922 in Western Asia Minor and nowadays in certain dialectal enclaves in Greece. After giving a brief historic and linguistic overview of the dialect, it describes and analyzes two native prefixoids which do not exist in Standard Modern Greek, plaku- and sa-, claiming that there is a way to have a synchronic look at these items and that it is possible to consider their category as being morphologically distinct from the categories of stems and affixes. It argues that the existence of affixoids should be seen as language dependent and that they may appear in languages with stem-based morphology, such as Greek. The crucial role of stem morphology is also pointed out in the subsequent section of verb borrowing, where Aivaliot verbs of both Turkish and Italo-Romance origin are examined. It is proposed that for a language it is possible to borrow and accommodate verbs, provided that certain conditions are met: for instance, integration of the loan items according to the rules of its morphology and a certain matching between its morpho-phonological characteristics with those of the donor.

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Mark Janse

Abstract

Cappadocian is well-known for having two types of agglutinative inflec¬tions: (1) mílos ‘mill’, gen. míloz-ju, pl. míloz-ja; (2) néka, pl. néc-es, gen. néc-ez-ju. This chapter shows on the basis of a detailed investigation of the dialectal evidence how these agglutinative inflections originated in the plural of the inherited masculine nouns in os due to a number of specifically Cappadocian innovations involving deletion of unstressed [i] and [u], differential object marking and the distinction between animate and inanimate nouns and, last but not least, pattern replication from Turkish. It is argued that the two types traditionally recognized as being agglutinative are actually analogical extensions of innovations which originated in the novel plural inflection of animate masculine nouns in os.

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Brian D. Joseph

Abstract

A variety of Greek spoken once in Turkey that has not garnered the attention that other such varieties have, namely the Greek of Adrianoupolis, present-day Edirne, is the focus of this chapter, drawing on the rather remarkable lexicon produced by the French Orientalist Ronzevalle in 1911 (published in Journal Asiatique) as the primary source. The temporal focus is the Ottoman period, particularly late in that era, a time when Greek was the language of over a quarter of the city’s population. Ottoman-era Adrianoupolis Greek is a northern dialect but is noteworthy in the degree of influence it shows from its co-territorial language, Turkish. While at first glance, the effects seem to be purely lexical, a more careful consideration of the affected lexemes reveals a deep degree of contact, with words being borrowed that are in classes generally resistant to transfer across languages, such as pronouns and grammatical markers. The degree of penetration of Turkish into the lexicon of this variety is particularly striking and offers a means of reconstructing the nature of Greek-Turkish contact in that period in that place.

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Io Manolessou

Abstract

The paper provides a general descriptive framework and a socio-historical background for the (modern) Greek dialects of Asia Minor and Eastern Thrace. It gives information on the spatio-temporal location of these dialects, the available primary and secondary sources, and the earliest attestation of their major features, with discussion of selected examples.

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Dimitra Melissaropoulou

Abstract

This paper investigates some of the most characteristic morphological innovations occurring in Propontis Tsakonian, with special focus on the organization of its nominal system, the formation of comparative constructions and the suffixal process of augmentation. The investigation of the above-mentioned phenomena hopes to widen our knowledge on variation and change in the variety of Propontis Tsakonian, and to contribute to the study of dialectal variation as a window towards an in-depth investigation of issues central to possible language structures and the direction of language change.

The Morphology of Silliot

Paradigmatic Defectiveness, Paradigmatic Levelling and Affix Pleonasm

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Petros Karatsareas