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Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy

The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs in the Early Cold War


Edited by Alison Kraft and Carola Sachse

From 1957 onwards, the Pugwash Conferences brought together elite scientists from across ideological and political divides to work towards disarmament. Through a series of national case studies - Austria, China, Czechoslovakia, East and West Germany, the US and USSR – this volume offers a critical reassessment of the development and work of “Pugwash” nationally, internationally, and as a transnational forum for Track II diplomacy. This major new collection of work reveals the difficulties that Pugwash scientists encountered as they sought to reach across the blocs, create a channel for East-West dialogue and realize on the project’s founding aim of influencing state actors. Uniquely, the book affords a sense of the contingent and contested process by which the network-like organization took shape around the conferences.

Contributors are Gordon Barrett, Matthew Evangelista, Silke Fengler, Alison Kraft, Fabian Lüscher, Doubravka Olšáková, Geoffrey Roberts, Paul Rubinson, and Carola Sachse.

Yearbook of International Organizations 2019-2020, Volume 3

Global Action Networks - A Subject Directory and Index

Edited by Union of International Associations

Yearbook of International Organizations 2019-2020, Volume 2

Geographical Index - A Country Directory of Secretariats and Memberships

Edited by Union of International Associations

Edited by Union of International Associations

The Yearbook of International Organizations provides the most extensive coverage of non-profit international organizations currently available. Detailed profiles of international non-governmental (NGO) and intergovernmental organizations (IGO), collected and documented by the Union of International Associations, can be found here. In addition to the history, aims and activities of international organizations, with their events, publications, and contact details, the volumes of the Yearbook include networks between associations, biographies of key people involved and extensive statistical data.

Volume 1 (A and B) of the Yearbook of International Organizations covers international organizations throughout the world, comprising their aims, activities and events. This includes names (in English, French and, where available, other languages), abbreviations and descriptions of over 34,000 not-for-profit organizations currently active in every field of human endeavor, as well as references to associated organizations, whose goals cross all economic, political and geographical borders, offering an insight into new, productive relationships.

Volume 1 also allows quick and easy cross-referencing from volumes 2, 3, 4, and 6.

Shulin Zhou and Chienliang Kuo


How nonprofit organizations (NPO) utilize social media to engage in advocacy work is regarded as one of the most important challenges in the digital economy era. However, although current studies pay their attention to how NPO react to the prevalence of social media, less focus is paid on how social media help to shape NPO’s practices on advocacy work. To help close the gap between theory and practice, this research explores whether the alignment between NPO’s advocacy practices and features of social media determine the NPO’s usage on social media. In particular, how the crowdfunding platform, an emerging and powerful form of social media, is used by NPO is investigated. Those crowdfunding projects initiated by NPO in FlyingV, the most well-known crowdfunding platform in Taiwan, are taken as the data source for analysis in this paper. The findings reveal that crowdfunding platforms are beneficial to NPO in turns of gaining resources and attracting participants, which then fostering the realization of advocacy activities. As well, the efficiency of crowdfunded projects (or advocacy proposals) is mainly determined by the number of participants (or sponsors). However, based on the findings, it is argued that NPO so far have not realized the power of crowdfunding platforms, thus not yet regarding crowdfunding platforms as key social media or strategic weapons in strengthening their impact or contribution on advocacy work relevant to their missions.

Zehua Yan


In the China-specific dual management system of social organizations, competent government department’s support for and supervision over industrial associations affect and even determine their political engagement and policy advocacy. By analyzing the technological incubator association in the city of T, this paper finds that when local government departments have overlapping duties and interests, the industrial association, if it can help the disadvantaged department increase the chips for the power and resource game, can receive more attention, support and policy discourse power from that department. Besides, in the local government’s management model, a big enterprise with scale and resource advantages has more chances to communicate and interact with the government department that’s superior to the one in charge of the industrial association, so the industrial association in which this big enterprise is a member can get more attention and support from the competent department, making it more effective in policy advocacy.

Shuoyan Li


How non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in China overcome external control from the state and advocate their mission under the dual-management system? While studies on the bargaining between NGOs and the competent authority mostly emphasize the use of persona connections at individual level, little research focuses on the strategy of how NGOs use institutional factors. This article argues that NGOs could get rid of the external control by creating new institutional links with the government, which provides NGOs more opportunities in advocacy. Based on an in-depth case study, this article takes an environmental NGO in H City of Z Province as an example to illustrate how the organization develops relationships with a new authority. This new institutional link helps the NGO to reduce its dependence on the single authority and enhance its autonomy. The changed power structure ultimately enables the NGO to expand its space for advocacy.

Wenjuan Zhang


While globalization creates an ambitious space for NGOs to play a large role in policy-making and problem-solving the concern about their accountability always remains there. As the biggest developing countries, India and China have attracted lots of international aid and INGOs’ attention. Recently, both have taken serious efforts to regulate or even to control INGOs’ influence in domestic context despite the difference of their political systems. It is worthy of comparative analysis in a nuanced way on their similarities and differences of why and how to regulate. As a reflection, it is also a good moment for relevant stakeholders to re-imagine the global governance and their relevant role.

Xinyao Zheng and Zongchao Peng


The number of non-governmental organizations in Egypt continued to grow before 2011. The middle class became the main participants in the political movement against Mubarak regime in 2011. However, it could not be attributed to the mobilization by non-governmental organizations. Based on regression analysis results of the questionnaire survey conducted by Arab Barometer in 2011, NGOs’ mobilization of their middle-class members was almost ineffective. As for the underclass, only the charitable organizations had a strong mobilization effect. From the two aspects of consensus mobilization and action mobilization, the paper explains the reasons why non-governmental organizations failed to mobilize their middle-class members and the specific mechanism for charitable organizations to mobilize their underclass members. Egypt’s experience shows that NGOs do not necessarily act as the main driving force of political resistance, which depends on NGOs’ capability of mobilizing their members for consensus and action, and for different social classes, the mobilization effects show great differences.

Tzu-Shen Yang and Min-Hsiu Chiang


In recent years, social enterprises in Taiwan have experienced a period of growth and are becoming more diversified. At the same time, the government is paying more attention to fostering a policy-friendly environment for their development. Despite growing interest in social enterprises, research on this phenomenon remains limited in Taiwan. Using a cross-sectoral perspective, this study is based on qualitative data from in-depth interviews on social enterprises. There are three main findings, first, the development of Taiwan’s social enterprise policy is deeply affected by different sectors. Second, the roles of the sectors are distinct and there is frequent cross-sectoral cooperation. Third, there is still a gap between the government sector’s and other sectors’ views of the social enterprise policy.