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Unimpeded Sailing

A Critical Edition of Johann Gröning’s Navigatio Libera (Extended 1698 Edition)

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Peter Maxwell-Stuart, Steve Murdoch and Leos Müller

The original Latin text of Johann Gröning’s Navigatio libera has never before been translated into any modern vernacular language. Gröning’s intention was to set out the position of neutral nations (in this case the Danes and Swedes), and their right to pursue trade during the wars of the great maritime powers (particularly the English and the Dutch). It specifically sought to engage with and refute the work of Hugo Grotius while taking cognisance of the critique of Gröning’s work by Samuel Pufendorf. The text serves as a bridge between 17th-century polemical discourse surrounding the ‘free sea’ versus ‘enclosed sea’ debate and later 18th-century legal literature on the rights of neutrals and the continuation of free trade in time of war.

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Author : Peter Maxwell-Stuart, Steve Murdoch and Leos Müller

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Author : Peter Maxwell-Stuart, Steve Murdoch and Leos Müller

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Author : Peter Maxwell-Stuart, Steve Murdoch and Leos Müller

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Leos Müller and Steve Murdoch

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Author : Peter Maxwell-Stuart, Steve Murdoch and Leos Müller

Series:

Author : Peter Maxwell-Stuart, Steve Murdoch and Leos Müller

The Origins of International Counterterrorism

Switzerland at the Forefront of Crisis Negotiations, Multilateral Diplomacy, and Intelligence Cooperation (1969-1977)

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Aviva Guttmann

Switzerland suffered four major terrorist attacks in 1969 and 1970, which forced the Swiss government to address the issue of international terrorism for the first time. Subsequently, “neutral” Switzerland worked closely with Western Cold War powers to develop international counterterrorism measures and forged a European-Israeli counterterrorist alignment to counter Palestinian terrorism in Europe.
Using recently declassified archival records, this book is the first study to examine how the Swiss government positioned the country within the international struggle against terrorism. The book brings to light the creation of the Club de Berne, a secret European network of intelligence agencies connected to Israel and the United States. It offers new insights about the history of Swiss, Western European, and Israeli security cooperation.