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Elleni Zeleke

Between the years 1964 and 1974, Ethiopian post-secondary students studying at home, in Europe, and in North America produced a number of journals. In these they explored the relationship between social theory and social change within the project of building a socialist Ethiopia. Ethiopia in Theory examines the literature of this student movement, together with the movement’s afterlife in Ethiopian politics and society, in order to ask: what does it mean to write today about the appropriation and indigenisation of Marxist and mainstream social science ideas in an Ethiopian and African context; and, importantly, what does the archive of revolutionary thought in Africa teach us about the practice of critical theory more generally?

Regional Integration and Migration in Africa

Lessons from Southern and West Africa

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Vusi Gumede, Samuel Ojo Oloruntoba and Serges Djoyou Kamga

This comparative book debates migration and regional integration in the two regional economic blocs, namely the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). The book takes a historical and nuanced citizenship approach to integration by analysing regional integration from the perspective of non-state actors and how they negotiate various structures and institutions in their pursuit for life and livelihood in a contemporary context marked by mobility and economic fragmentation.

A Decade of Tanzania

Politics, Economy and Society 2005-2017

Kurt Hirschler and Rolf Hofmeier

Tanzania is widely recognized as a rather exceptional case of an African country that has seen political continuity and stability for more than five decades and has not experienced any major conflicts as has been the case elsewhere on the continent. Major political transformations – such as the transformation from a socialist one-party state to a market-oriented multi-party system – were initiated from above and controlled by the Revolutionary Party CCM, which has ruled the country since it gained independence in 1961. Despite its peaceful development and steady economic growth rates over the past 15 years, Tanzania has remained a low-income country with a huge majority of its people living in poverty.

This volume contains the original country chapters on Tanzania from the Africa Yearbook. Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara, covering the period 2005 – 2017. It embraces the entire 10-year presidency of President Kikwete and the first two years under the current President Magufuli.

Crime, Law and Society in Nigeria

Essays in Honour of Stephen Ellis

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Edited by Rufus Akinyele and Ton Dietz

This volume in honour of Stephen Ellis is a follow-up to the public presentation of his book on the history of organised crime in Nigeria This Present Darkness (Hurst, 2016) at the University of Lagos, Nigeria on 28 October 2016. In addition to four papers, and a book review presented at this colloquium, other contributions about crime in Nigeria have been added, written by Nigerian authors. In July 2015 Stephen died, and he has worked on This Present Darkness almost to his last moments, as a senior researcher of the African Studies Centre in Leiden. This book also contains a tribute to his life and work written by his wife and scholar Gerrie ter Haar.

Contributors include: A.E Akintayo, Jackson Aluede, Franca Attoh, Ayodele Atsenuwa, Edmund Chilaka, Samson Folarin, Gerrie ter Haar, Ayodeji Olukoju, Abiodun Oluwadare, Paul Osifodunrin and Leo Enahoro Otoide.

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Edmund Chilaka

Abstract

This paper focuses on crime and malfeasance in Nigerian port environments since the 1990s. The discourse on crime patterns in Nigeria is often subsumed under the depredations of pirates in the Gulf of Guinea because of the immediate ramifications for international shipping. However, since the late 1900s, the incidence of crime and malfeasance in Nigerian ports, ranging from pilfering to smuggling and armed robbery, has posed a challenge to their marketability and favoured-port status within the sub-region, prompting the government’s remedial action plans prior to the implementation of the isps Code. Using primary and secondary sources, the study finds that criminals tended to adjust their tactics to evade emergent changes in port infrastructure and law enforcement networks. It concludes that the internationalisation of maritime security measures in the new millennium curtailed the most common misdemeanours, leaving the high-profile, classes of white-collar port crimes which thrive under elite protection yet to be fully addressed.

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A.E. Akintayo

Abstract

Nigeria is notorious for bribery, corruption, and organised crimes, among other challenges confronting the country. Scholars have attempted to trace the root causes of the problem to several sources. The main argument of this chapter is that the analysis of the cause(s) of corruption and organised crime in Nigeria is incomplete without an examination of the contribution of the inherited class-based criminal justice system in Nigeria. This chapter, therefore, has analysed how the class-based criminal justice system, inherited from England, has contributed to the present rot in Nigeria. The submission is that it has fostered the illicit interests and corruption of the political and ruling elite and their cohorts in Nigeria through a compromised judiciary. The chapter discusses the symbiotic relationship between the class-based criminal law regime, the illicit interests of the wealthy or the monied class in Nigeria, and corruption by some members of the Nigerian judiciary.

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Franca Attoh

Abstract

The chapter interrogates the phenomenon of crime at the University of Lagos (unilag), Nigeria. Using the Akoka campus as a case study, it avers that the increasing criminality in the neighbourhoods in close proximity to the campus, such as Bariga and Ilaje, is likely to affect the prevalence of crime on the campus itself. The data for the chapter were gathered through triangulation of a cross-sectional survey, in-depth interviews, and key informant interviews. The Broken Window and Defensible Space theories provide a theoretical framework for the chapter, which argues that crime on the unilag Akoka campus is insignificant,although crimes such as theft and drug use are rampant in university hostels. University walkways, classrooms, and offices also experience a relatively high rate of crime. The architectural designs of Jaja, Mariere, and NewHalls aid theft in the hostels and provide a place for cult members to hang out, in spite of the university’s zero tolerance for cultism. The chapter concludes that leaving the hostels in a dilapidated condition gives the impression that no one cares, thus making them attractive to criminals.

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Ayodeji Olukoju

Abstract

Currency counterfeiting and uttering was a major threat to the integrity of colonial administrative, commercial and financial systems in British West Africa. The menace was combated by police interdiction and prosecution of offenders under a legal system that dispensed ‘substantial justice’, devoid of reliance on technicalities. Relying on archival records, including proceedings of the trial of the protagonist, Tijani Ali, this paper highlights the perils and inconsistencies of speedy justice under the Lugardian ‘law and order’ regime in Northern Nigeria; the limitations of ad hoc judges in the adjudication of criminal cases; the limited opportunities for redress by aggrieved colonial subjects; the importance of context (local, regional, or global), exemplified in this case by inter-war economic vicissitudes; and the need to focus on individual actors to humanize crime by giving a human face and voice to the accused persons. The paper also demonstrates that the criminal profiling of ethnicities and occupational groups (the Ijebu and goldsmiths, respectively, in this case) during the colonial period presaged current practices of racial profiling in some Western countries. In the end, Tijani Ali was served ‘substantial injustice’ through a flawed dispensation of ‘substantial justice’.

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Rufus Akinyele and Ton Dietz

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Abiodun Oluwadare

Abstract

Nigeria’s Niger Delta is rich in mineral resources and provides more than 80 per cent of Nigeria’s revenue. It has also been a major source of insecurity in the country. The restiveness, the result of militant youths in the region demanding compensation from Multinational Oil Corporations (mnoc) exploring the area’s oil resources, continues unabated. This chapter examines the causes of the restiveness that has assumed a criminal dimension. It reveals that since the discovery and exploration of oil, the Niger Delta has experienced tensions and contestations over resource control, environmental degradation, and minority protests. The Government of Nigeria, which has gained so much from the oil resources, has neglected the development of the area rendering it one of the poorest in the world. It reveals that these youthful agitations precipitated a series of criminal activities ranging from kidnapping to pipeline vandalism and other criminal tendencies. The study recommends that the government and the mnocs acknowledge their responsibilities and develop the Niger Delta to promote peace and development in Nigeria.