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Paintings, Drawings and Prints up to the Nineteenth Century
Authors: Sam Segal and Klara Alen
This richly illustrated book provides an overview of all known Dutch and Flemish artists up to the nineteenth century who painted or drew flower pieces, or else made prints of them. Unlike many mainstream art historical studies, the book takes a truly comprehensive approach, including cases where only a single example is known or even if nothing of the artist’s other work appears to have survived. Containing highly instructive lists identifying the names of flowers, as well as insects and other animals, the book also discusses the earliest depictions of flower still life and the distinctive characteristics behind the development of floral arrangements in different periods, including the variation of the flowers, the variety of techniques used by artists, as well as an exploration of the symbolism behind the numerous plant and animal species this form of art portrays.

Composed in Dutch, the text was translated into English by Judith Deitch and edited by Philip Kelleway.

Publication of this book was made possible thanks to generous support of:
• Dr. med. Bettina Leysen
• Rose-Marie and Eijk van Otterloo and the Center for Netherlandish Art at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

With additional support of the M.A.O.C. Gravin van Bylandt Stichting.

A two-year field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of water stress, including Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI), on seed, protein and oil yields, for two hybrids of drip-irrigated soybean in Central Greece. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with four replicates, five main plots (irrigation treatments) and two sub-plots (soybean hybrids, ‘PR91M10’ and ‘PR92B63’). Irrigation was applied to provide 100, 75, 50 and 25% of the crop evapotranspiration needs and 0% non-irrigated. Biomass weight, seed yield, oil and protein concentration were measured after harvest. To compute CWSI, lower and upper baselines were developed based on the canopy temperature measurements of I100 and I0 treatments, respectively. Deficit irrigation had a significant effect on biomass, seed, protein and oil yields. Hybrid PR92B63 was more responsive to irrigation and showed higher biomass, seed protein and oil yields, while the more sensitive hybrid PR91M10 had the ability to maintain productivity with increasing degrees of water stress. The rain-fed treatments significantly reduced biomass production and seed yield compared with the fully-irrigated ones. The highest and the lowest protein and oil yields were obtained in the I100 and I0 treatments respectively in both years and cultivars. Statistically significant exponential relationships were determined between CWSI and biomass, seed, protein and oil yields. Generally, CWSI could be used to measure crop water status and to improve irrigation scheduling of the crop and 0.10 for PR92B63 and 0.19 for PR91M10 could be offered as threshold values under the climatic conditions of the region.

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

Oldenlandia herbacea (L.) Roxb. is an important medicinal plant of Indian, Malayan, and Chinese traditional systems of medicines. In vitro flowering system serves as a model system to study flowering physiology, and role of combination of photoperiodic conditions and ethylene inhibitors. Ethylene is responsible for delayed flowering response in plants; hence, it is interesting to explore the role of ethylene inhibitors and photoperiod on flowering mechanism. The present study, for the first time, reports the influence of silver thiosulfate (STS), silver nitrate, and photoperiod (PP) to induce high-frequency in vitro flowering in O. herbacea. The flowers were induced from the in vitro shoots (2.0 floral buds per shoot) on MS medium containing 4 μM 6-benzylaminopurine + 2 μM indole-3-acetic acid + 5 μM STS at 14-h PP. This study could be the foundation to understand the role of PP and silver ions on flowering physiology at molecular level.

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

Abstract

Variation in the wood structure of Alnus nepalensis D. Don (Betulaceae) in relation to tree size and habitat altitude was studied in four areas of Nepal: Tamur, Rolwaling, Budi Gandaki, and Bajhang-Khaptad. Alnus nepalensis is a pioneer tree distributed in the Himalayas from northern India to southwestern China and grows throughout Nepal in a wide altitudinal range from 200 m in the tropical zone to 3030 m at the upper limit of the temperate zone. Ecological trends in the wood structure of Alnus nepalensis varied between the studied areas, distinct in the Tamur area, but indistinct in other areas, and tended to be detected in areas with specimens from altitudinal ranges of 2000 m. When all the specimens were separated at 1800 m in elevation and analyzed as two altitudinal groups, features of vessel size and distribution and the ratio of solitary vessels had a significant correlation with tree height in both groups, and tall trees tended to have larger, more solitary vessels. Vessel element and fiber lengths did not have any significant trends in the lower group but had a negative correlation with altitude in the upper group along with the reduction of tree height. Thus, vessel size seems to facilitate the height growth of this pioneer tree, and shorter tracheary elements and more vessel multiples seem to be related to the adaptation of smaller trees at higher elevations.

In: IAWA Journal

Abstract

The effect of natural and artificial weathering on the anatomy of seven tropical hardwoods: Bangkirai (Shorea obtusa Wall.), Cumaru (Dipteryx odorata (Aubl.) Wild.), Cumaru Rosa (Dipteryx magnifica (Ducke) Ducke), Ipé (Tabebuia serratifolia Nichols.), Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L.), Kusia (Nauclea diderrichii Merill) and Massaranduba (Manilkara bidentata A. Chev.), was studied. As a result of weathering some characteristic anatomical changes occurred: the weakening of connections between cell elements related to the degradation of the middle lamella; micro-cracks in cell walls; total degradation of parenchyma cells in xylem rays, or significant thinning of parenchyma cell walls and their extreme shrinkage; micro-cracks in the vicinity of xylem rays; significant transversal disruptions in libriform fibres; ablation of pit membranes in vessels and parenchyma cells; changes in the secondary wall of libriform fibres, for example, their defibrillation and weathering-degradation of the S1 layer; and spherical formations on the S3 layer of cell walls produced from condensing compounds of degraded lignin and hemicelluloses as well as thermo-mechanical wrinkling. The highest incidence of micro-cracks after both modes of weathering was found in the densest species; Cumaru, Ipé, and Massaranduba.

In: IAWA Journal

Abstract

The products of secondary xylem are of significant biological and commercial importance, and as a result, the biology of secondary growth and how intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence this process have been the subject of intense investigation. Studies into secondary xylem range in scale from the cellular to the forest stand level, with phenotypic analyses often involving the assessment of traits relating to cell morphology and cell wall chemical composition. While numerous techniques are currently available for phenotypic analyses of samples containing abundant amounts of secondary tissue, only a few of them (microanalytical techniques) are suitable when working with limiting amounts of secondary tissue or where a fine-scale resolution of morphological features or cell wall chemical composition is required. While polarised light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, field emission-scanning electron microscopy and X-ray scattering and micro-tomography techniques serve as the most frequently used microanalytical techniques in morphotyping, techniques such as scanning ultraviolet microspectrophotometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, gas chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry serve as the most commonly used microanalytical techniques in chemotyping. Light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy serve as dual micro morphotyping and chemotyping techniques. In this review, we summarise and discuss these techniques in the light of their applicability as microanalytical techniques to study secondary xylem.

In: IAWA Journal

Abstract

The structure of hardwoods representing eight tropical and five temperate species was characterized from the atomistic level up to the cellular level using X-ray scattering, X-ray microtomography and light microscopy. The species were chosen for this study based on their popularity as tonewoods. The ultrastructure of wood cell walls, including crystallite size, orientation and close-range order of cellulose microfibrils were determined by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS). The SAXS patterns were interpreted by using an analytical model of cylinders packed in a hexagonal close-range order with paracrystalline distortion. The values for the cylinder diameters given by this model were compared to the average crystallite widths obtained by WAXS using the Scherrer equation. In six out of 26 samples, all of these representing tropical species used especially in fretboard parts of electric guitars, large differences between these two sizes were obtained. The WAXS and microscopy results of these samples corresponded to tension wood structures. These comparisons and interpretations of SAXS results have not been previously presented for any tropical hardwoods, especially related to those containing tension wood tissue. The importance of the ultrastructural characterization was highlighted in this study in the case of tropical hardwood samples.

In: IAWA Journal

Abstract

Paubrasilia echinata is recognized as the best wood in the manufacture of high-quality bows for string instruments. The wood anatomy of five historic French violin bows of the 19th and 20th century made of Pernambuco wood were investigated in order to reveal the wood anatomic features of these historical bows, to determine which P. echinata morphotype (arruda, café or laranja) was used in their manufacture and to identify the state of origin of the wood. Five bow samples were compared to 33 P. echinata specimens from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte. The wood anatomical features were compared by means of principal component analysis, which revealed the type of axial parenchyma and percentage of tissue to be the most important to sort specimens. The best wood anatomical features previously described for high-quality bows were corroborated here and the bows in general showed similar wood anatomical features. Based on wood anatomy we found that the violin bows were most similar to the samples from the arruda morphotype derived from the States of Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte by presenting scanty, unilateral and vasicentric axial parenchyma without confluences forming bands, higher percentage of fibres and lower percentage of axial parenchyma. We can therefore suggest that the historical French violin bows studied here were all made of the arruda morphotype from the Brazilian Northeast region helping explain the preference of the French explorers for this region.

In: IAWA Journal

Abstract

The liana genus Paullinia L. is one of the most speciose in the neotropics and is unusual in its diversity of stem macromorphologies and cambial conformations. These so-called “vascular cambial variants” are morphologically disparate, evolutionarily labile, and are implicated in injury repair and flexibility. In this study, we explore at the finer scale how wood anatomy translates into functions related to the climbing habit. We present the wood anatomy of Paullinia and discuss the functional implications of key anatomical features. Wood anatomy characters were surveyed for 21 Paullinia species through detailed anatomical study. Paullinia woods have dimorphic vessels, rays of two size classes, and both septate and non-septate fibers. Fibriform vessels, fusiform axial parenchyma, and elements morphologically intermediate between fibers and axial parenchyma were observed. Prismatic crystals are common in the axial and/or ray parenchyma, and laticifers are present in the cortex and/or the early-formed secondary phloem. Some features appear as unique to Paullinia or the Sapindaceae, such as the paucity of axial parenchyma and the abundance of starch storing fibers. Although many features are conserved across the genus, the Paullinia wood anatomy converges on several features of the liana-specific functional anatomy expressed across distantly related lianas, demonstrating an example of convergent evolution. Hence, the conservation of wood anatomy in Paullinia suggests a combination of phylogenetic constraint as a member of Sapindaceae and functional constraint from the liana habit.

In: IAWA Journal
In Crocologia – A Detailed Study of Saffron, the King of Plants, Sally Francis and Maria Teresa Ramandi present the first translation into English of Johann Ferdinand Hertodt’s seminal 1671 work Crocologia, a book uniquely devoted to the medical uses of saffron. Hertodt discusses saffron’s origin, related species, cultivation, selection, properties and lists all its pharmaceutical preparations. Hertodt then journeys through diseases of the human body, presenting saffron-containing formulae for their treatment.

The two authors complement the translation with a biography of Hertodt, and detail saffron’s botany, current production, uses, its changing reputation as a drug, and review findings from new medical research. There is a full Glossary, and translation of a contemporary animadversion of Crocologia by Hertodt’s rival, Wenzel Maximilian Ardensbach.