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The Clash of Projections
Volume Editors: Vladimir Biti, Joep Leerssen, and Vivian Liska
Recent developments within and beyond Europe have variously challenged the very idea of Europe, calling it into question and demanding reconsideration of its underlying assumptions. The essays collected here reassess the contemporary position of a perceived “European” identity in the world, overshadowed as it is by the long antecedents and current crisis of triumphalist Eurocentrism. While Eurocentrism itself is still a potent mind-set, it is now increasingly challenged by intra-European crises and by the emergence of autonomously non-European perceptions of Europe. The perspectives assembled here come from the fields of political, cultural and literary history, contemporary history, social and political science and philosophy.

Contributors are:Damir Arsenijević, Luiza Bialasiewicz, Vladimir Biti, Lucia Boldrini, Gerard Delanty, César Domínguez, Nikol Dziub, Rodolphe Gasché, Aage Hansen-Löve, Shigemi Inaga, Joep Leerssen, and Vivian Liska.
In African Somaesthetics: Cultures, Feminisms, Politics, Catherine F. Botha brings together original research on the body in African cultures, specifically interrogating the possibilities of the contribution of a somaesthetic approach in the context of colonization, decolonization, and globalization in Africa.

The eleven innovative contributions that consider the somaesthetic dimensions of experience in the context of Africa (centred broadly around the themes of politics, feminisms, and cultures) reflect a diversity of perspectives and positions. The book is a first of its kind in gathering together novel and focused analyses of the body as conceived of from an African perspective.
Author: Gianmaria Ajani
The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) as an “autonomous author” urges the law to rethink authorship, originality, creativity. AI-generated artworks are in search of an author because current copyright laws offer as a solution only public domain or fragile regulatory mechanisms. During the 20th century visual artists have been posing persistent challenges to the law world: Conceptual Art favoured legal mechanisms alternative to copyright law. The case of AI-art is, however, different: for the first time the artworld is discovering the prospective of an art without human authors. Rather than preserving the status quo in the law world, policy makers should consider a reformative conception of AI in copyright law and take inspiration from innovative theories in the field of robot law, where new frames for a legal personhood of artificial agents are proposed. This would have a spill-over effect also on copyright regulations.
Author: Gianmaria Ajani

Abstract

The advent of Artificial Intelligence as an “autonomous author” in the various modes of Arts urges the law to rethink the traditional concepts of authorship, originality, and creativity. AI-generated artworks are in search of an author, so to speak, because current copyright laws only offer the solution of the public domain or fragile regulatory mechanisms. Several adjustments have globally led copyright laws to cover new forms of authorship as well as new sorts of works. Yet, the romantic idea of a lone individual as the master of creativeness still influences theoretical elaborations and normative choices. Throughout the 20th century, visual artists have been posing persistent challenges to the law: conceptual art and dematerialization have favored legal mechanisms alternative to copyright law. The case of AIart is, however, different: for the first time, the art world is discovering the perspective of an art without human authors. Rather than preserving the status quo in the legal world, policy makers should consider a reformative conception of AI in copyright law and take inspiration from innovative theories in the field of robot law, where new frames for a legal personhood of artificial agents are proposed. This would also have a spill-over effect on copyright regulations.

In: Contemporary Artificial Art and the Law
Author: Gianmaria Ajani

Abstract

The advent of Artificial Intelligence as an “autonomous author” in the various modes of Arts urges the law to rethink the traditional concepts of authorship, originality, and creativity. AI-generated artworks are in search of an author, so to speak, because current copyright laws only offer the solution of the public domain or fragile regulatory mechanisms. Several adjustments have globally led copyright laws to cover new forms of authorship as well as new sorts of works. Yet, the romantic idea of a lone individual as the master of creativeness still influences theoretical elaborations and normative choices. Throughout the 20th century, visual artists have been posing persistent challenges to the law: conceptual art and dematerialization have favored legal mechanisms alternative to copyright law. The case of AIart is, however, different: for the first time, the art world is discovering the perspective of an art without human authors. Rather than preserving the status quo in the legal world, policy makers should consider a reformative conception of AI in copyright law and take inspiration from innovative theories in the field of robot law, where new frames for a legal personhood of artificial agents are proposed. This would also have a spill-over effect on copyright regulations.

In: Brill Research Perspectives in Art and Law

Abstract

In the Notebooks to Crime and Punishment, kept by Dostoevsky during 1864–1865, we find a calligraphic annotation «Orenoko» and one abbreviated variant «Oren<oko>». While these two caligraphic entries appear to be accidental and without much bearing on the genesis of Crime and Punishment, in actual fact these entries are traces of an alternative conception of the novel with which Dostoevsky was working, which is connected with the question of the meaning of life and the philosophical journey of his heroes. The theme of South America figured prominently in these deliberations, represented by the River Orinoko (the second largest river of the South American continent, called the «Big River» by the Indians), by the figure and destiny of Christopher Columbus and by Daniel Defoes’s novel Robinson Crusoe. Dostoevsky’s letters and works testify to his abiding interest in the discovery of America, the slave trade, and the attempts of the followers of Fourierism to establish there a society along new just principles. This article investigates the traces of the theme of Orenoko, the discovery of America and Defoe’s novel in Dostoevsky’s works, with special emphasis on the Notebooks to Crime and Punishment The semantic nexus “Robinson Crusoe — Christopher Columbus” in its portrayal of one of the incarnations of a “positively beautiful man”, ready to pronounce his “new word” and advance the history of mankind, forms an expanded paradigm that includes the appearance of “uninhabited island” as the last refuge for a talented person not recognized and rejected by the crowd. Simultaneously, it depicts the genesis of Dostoevsky’s “artistic Word”.

In: The Dostoevsky Journal
In: The Dostoevsky Journal
Author: Wolf Schmid

Abstract

More than 200 sheets of Dostoevsky’s manuscripts contain drawings, among them mainly portraits, sketches of Gothic windows and arches and calligrams. Dostoevsky’s graphic work is basically auto-communicative, not intended for a public. The graphics are not an illustration of the corresponding novels but express associations often of a highly private nature and have a meaning for the work that is often only very indirect and difficult to grasp. Dostoevsky’s graphics thus require hermeneutic effort, which has been achieved by Professor Konstantin Barsht of St. Petersburg in an impressive book, published in three separate editions in Russian, English and Italian. The decoding of Dostoevsky’s drawings is a most valuable contribution to Dostoevsky scholarship. It will serve to support new readings of Dostoevsky’s works or readings already in existence which have not received a favorable reception because of existing preconceptions about Dostoevsky’s system of beliefs relevant to his aesthetic production.

In: The Dostoevsky Journal

In this paper I analyse the internal splitting in Raskolnikov’s character, and the path which leads him from fragmentation to integration. The splitting of the character is explained as complemented by the split in the novel through the ‘surprising’ end of the novel, both in its style and brevity, i.e. the resolution of the internal conflict via Raskolnikov’s mystical turn to faith. The splitting comprises the fact that Raskolnikov must alienate himself in radical alterity in order to come to his authentic self; the split between the fictitious, false self of the extraordinary man and the realistic and true self of the ordinary man at the end of the novel tells the story of how the fragmented self, paradoxically, opens up the way to the integrated self. For this purpose I have relied mostly on Lacanian concepts, as Lacan’s idea of the integrated ‘I’ is closely related to the ethical act by which the Symbolic is transgressed, and which represents a radical alienation in the Real concomitant with the temporary suspension of the Symbolic.

In: The Dostoevsky Journal
Author: N. A. Tarasova

Abstract

The article contains an analysis of the manuscript materials to the novel The Idiot, comprised in three of Dostoevsky’s notebooks, dated bewteen 1867 and 1868. The article examines the probelms of the creative conception of the novel, the establishment of the text and the sequence of notes, as well as the study of Dostoevsky’s caligraphy. As a result of a critical evaluation of the scholarly publications of The Idiot, a revision of the Soviet tradition of establishing «versions» of the novel in the drafts to the novel is proposed. Comparing the published draft texts with the original, we were able to correct and give textological commentary to many previous readings of the drafts. We paid particular attention to the interpretation of Dostoevsky’s use of capital and small letters in the drafts, including the designation of the main hero by Dostoevsy as «idiot»/«Idiot». We examined the functional and semantic significance of the caligraphic writing found among the drafts to the novel. Our analysis shows that caligraphy had an artistic meaning not only in connection with the drafts to which it related but in the formation of the total conception of the novel and its problem statement, while it also determined Dostoevsky’s creative process. It is not an accident that Dostoevsky’s most intense experimentation with caligraphy coincides with the period of the writing of The Idiot, whose hero is an expert in caligraphy.

In: The Dostoevsky Journal