How should a cluster be designed to foster the innovativeness of its members? In this article, we view self-aware and organised clusters as “meta-organisations” which can deliberately shape their internal structures through design-based interventions. To formulate interventions for cluster design fostering its innovativeness, we adopt a methodology combining a systematic literature review and a design-oriented synthesis. We distinguish between six cluster business model elements: actors and their roles, resources and capabilities, value flows, governance, value propositions and value-creating activities. To gain insight into the properties of these elements conducive to cluster innovativeness, we review literature at the intersection of cluster, meta-organisation, business model and innovation studies. Our study allows to consolidate the extant research into “organised” clustering and the drivers of the cluster actors’ innovativeness. It also helps identify several important unanswered questions in the literature and to suggest potentially fruitful directions for further work.
Scholars have highlighted the need for a clearer knowledge, conceptualization and theorizing on the practicality of integrating arts entrepreneurship education in university programs. The objective of this study is to identify the themes in the Arts Entrepreneurship (AE) and to develop these themes to a conceptual model that describes the Arts Entrepreneurship Education (AEE). This research article fills the existing gap in the literature on the AEE through the research question: What are the key themes in AEE, and how can these themes be linked to the conceptual development of the AEE literature? This study argues that if entrepreneurship is to be viewed as a fundamental part of AEE, teachers need to have proper knowledge of the importance and inclusion in the University’s art subject curriculum. The findings identified pertinent themes, subthemes and trends several scholars have worked on finding the best practices to promote the development of AEE.
The article links upgrading in the global value chains with the triple helix concept by focusing on business-academia collaborations that played a part in firms’ capacity to upgrade. Both are crucial for Central Eastern European countries, which face the need to restructure their economies and escape the “middle income trap”. The article asks the following research question: how can public policy encourage business-academia collaboration or other types of activities that contribute to firm upgrading? Data on four different case studies in Lithuania is analysed to answer this question. Results indicate that building endogenous technological capacity through a variety of business-university collaboration types is needed to attract higher-value foreign direct investment and facilitate intersectoral and functional global value chain upgrading. Furthermore, besides research and development, educating and training the labour force are likely to be even more poweful drivers for business-academia collaboration in Central and Eastern Europe.
This article explores a phenomenon of a regional startup ecosystem—its key elements, resources and mechanisms needed for the ecosystem development and growth. Despite famous success stories of such regional ecosystems as Silicon Valley, the literature suggests multiple problems to emerge on the ecosystem development pathway. One of the common issues is a relative disconnect between the knowledge subsystem represented by research centers or universities and a business subsystem represented by mainly large firms. The current understanding of the underlying mechanisms helping to bridge the gap between knowledge and business ecosystems in entrepreneurial regions remain limited. Studying the case of one of the oldest science and technology parks in the world, Research Triangle Park in North Carolina, usa, we explore the development of a regional ecosystem—its elements, challenges and mechanisms to address those. Our findings reveal the key elements, with entrepreneurial networks being one of the most crucial, and explain the difficulties in the elements’ interaction.
The evaluation of the companies’ performance at University Science Parks (SPs) becomes essential in identifying the needs of the companies and the feasibility of the University-Business Collaboration (ubc). The companies’ real needs are also of interest for universities and SPs, since they face the challenge of designing strategies that best help them to transfer knowledge more effectively. This research article focuses on Key Performance Indicators (kpis) in ubc, needs and business objectives of companies co-located at SPs in Spain and Mexico. This article (i) aims to identify the kpis in ubc used by co-located companies at SPs, and (ii) explore the kpis in ubc and critical success factors of SPs. This article focuses on the perspective of companies, with a secondary focus on the perspectives of SPs and universities. For this study, data was collected through online company surveys in Spain and Mexico. Moreover, the empirical analysis uses fourteen semi-structured interviews addressed to SPs directors to explore kpis in ubc and success factors of SPs in both countries. In addition, two frameworks were developed with the main kpis in ubc, taking into account university and company perspectives. They show the objectives, strategies and long-term kpis as well as progress kpis, and they are a useful guide to evaluate the accomplishments and the alignment of goals in ubc.
This research analyzes the evolution of the publications from academic researchers and technical publications carried out by professionals of the Science, Technology, and Innovation Parks (stips). The objective is to compare the research agenda from the two groups, increasing the comprehension of who they are and what they are researching. The method uses bibliometric techniques. The research found that the academic authors dealt with conceptual themes, while managers emphasized operations issues. Also, it was identified the growth in the academic interest on the subject (after 2015); the limited number of academic publications (177 in 12 years); China, Taiwan, and Spain as the countries with the highest academic output (40%); Spain, Brazil, and the usa concentrates 35% of technical publications. The work has implications for the academy (new topics for research agenda), and to the parks and policymakers enables a perception of the parks’ relevance to the economic development.
Although the science park (SP) concept is more than 50 years old, it has been continuously evolving and changing and new doubts, questions and needs have come to light. In order to understand and talk about the future of SPs, it seems necessary to understand their actual level of success. It is not a straightforward task as SPs are multi-owner organisations and definition of success will vary from one SP to another. Moreover, SPs have developed new roles and activities that are not easy to measure. Thereby, the aim of this paper is to fill in the gaps that exist in the literature on measuring the extent of success of contemporary SPs as individual organisations providing support for the benefit of its community. The paper proposes to measure SP success by means of a performance measurement system (pms). It offers a theory grounded tool to assess the effectiveness of SP actions and activities including knowledge-based activity. Additionally, the paper provides some strong evidence that SPs show characteristics in common with knowledge intensive organisations (kios) and therefore play an important role in orchestrating innovation ecosystems.