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Brian Mundy


At Victoria University in Melbourne many years have been spent developing a praxis model of education. Under this model praxis has been defined as ethical action for the public good. For the author praxis is focused around building theory from practice, to improve outcomes for both teachers and students. The author’s personal educational theory on praxis has evolved into a living praxis pedagogy and model. In this model, the educator and pre-service teacher (PST) build upon initial understandings, evaluate progress, reflect and act in an on-going reflexive process. In the Tertiary classroom this often manifests itself through the action of storytelling. This chapter will explore the relationship between stories and living praxis and suggest a process of narrative inquiry that can be used in the Tertiary classroom. Stories from placement/practicum have long been used in teacher education classes. Diagrams will be used to present this process and how it can be understood. This chapter will describe how these stories can evolve into understandings and personal theories of practice. It will explore the narrative inquiry process of live-tell-retell-relive and unpack how this can be used in the classroom to help scaffold PST theorising. It will outline the collaborative processes that occur in the classroom, the roles of the teacher educator, the individual PST and of other PSTs. The chapter will use data from PSTs, teacher evaluations and teacher observations to provide evidence of the success of the approach undertaken.

The Struggle Is Real

Metacognitive Conceptualizations, Actions, and Beliefs of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers

Heather Braund and Eleftherios Soleas


Metacognition has recently re-emerged as a central focus of educational initiatives. Developing students’ metacognition can improve academic performance by increasing their self-regulation across learning domains. Research has consistently shown that explicit instruction about metacognitive processes is necessary for developing metacognitive thinking. However, teacher readiness and understandings to do so, have not been studied extensively leaving a significant gap in our understanding of teachers’ knowledge of metacognition and beliefs. This sequential explanatory mixed methods study compared pre-service (n = 43) and in-service (n = 45) teachers’ metacognitive beliefs and reported teaching practices. Data were collected through a questionnaire that informed subsequent semi-structured interviews. Non-parametric statistical tests elucidated differences across teaching samples, while qualitative data were thematically analyzed. Both in-service and pre-service teachers reported struggling to implement metacognition. In-service teachers demonstrated practical, concrete knowledge, as well as creative classroom integration of metacognition while pre-service conceptualizations lacked coherence pointing to specific areas where additional support is needed.

Edited by Juanjo Mena, Ana García-Valcárel and Francisco García Peñalvo

Edited by Juanjo Mena, Ana García-Valcárel and Francisco García Peñalvo

Stefinee Pinnegar, Celina Lay, Linda Turner, Jenna Granados and Sarah Witt


Because of refugees and immigrants, teachers face the challenge of educating the children of these populations to become literate and academically successful. Yet, most teacher education programs do not provide extensive education for preservice teachers to meet the needs of these students. Just as importantly, Goldenberg (2008) argues that even when teachers are educated about teaching children a second language they are often not willing to enact those practices. This study examined case studies of English learners (ELs) created by preservice teachers during student teaching and explored how preservice teachers positioned themselves in relationship to ELs. The researchers used positioning theory to examine case studies from 60 preservice teachers. The cases were of 3rd to 5th grade students in schools that had at least a 10% EL population. We identified three plotlines from the cases. Common across the plotlines was the positioning of ELs as positive, pleasant and progressing based on the preservice teachers work with them. There are implications for both teacher education and research.

Michael Cavanagh


This chapter reports an investigation of pre-service teachers’ use of video during professional experience as a tool for self-reflection and for the provision of feedback by their supervising teachers. Nine triads, comprising a pre-service teacher (PST), supervising teacher and university advisor participated in the study. Each week during a four-week professional experience placement, PSTs identified a ‘puzzle of practice’ and used smartphones to video a five-minute excerpt from one of their lessons. They annotated their video excerpt with time-stamped comments and uploaded it to a secure website. There, the supervising teacher and university advisor could view the video, read the annotations, and add their responses. Annotations were coded to identify the depth of the reflections using four categories: Descriptive; Evaluative; Reflective; Imaginative. Participants also provided feedback on their experiences through a survey. Results indicate that the process helped PSTs to reflect on classroom practice and provided opportunities for professional dialogue among triad members.

The field of education in the 21st century is broad in scope and is multidisciplinary. To help scholars and students understand the various disciplines that comprise the field of education, the editors view the various fields as texts to be historicized and explicated. Each field is a discipline with its own scholars, language, and research.

The various reference works will present comprehensive and accurate portraits of the various disciplines. What readers will encounter in these reference works is what the various fields are saying, and/or have been saying during their various histories. This can open up conversations among current established scholars and future, next generation scholars nationally and internationally. These complicated conversations would further expand the various fields and lead to possibilities for praxis. Praxis emphasizes the increase of critical knowledge and understandings both for self-development and social reconstruction.

There is a uniqueness in Critical Understanding in Education in the commitment to the focus on the historical development and comprehensive critical presentation of a particular discipline.

Authors are cordially invited to submit proposals and/or full manuscripts by e-mail to Assistant Editor Evelien van der Veer.