Nowadays, there is great pressure in cities on the demand and supply of food as well as environmental needs, and where Urban Agriculture emerges in various forms to confront this situation. Indeed, Urban Agriculture is a form of agriculture, highlighting its multiple functions in ensuring food security, maintaining urban ecosystem services, and improve the quality of life. Moreover, the use and transformation of abandoned areas is proving to be an appropriate way of creating new green spaces. This research article focuses on analysing the alignment between governance mechanisms, the distribution of the value created, together with the benefits derived. The comparison is based on four case studies in France, two in Paris (“La Caverne” and “Veni-Verdi”) and two in Rouen (“Le Champ des Possibles” and “Le Jardin de l’Astéroïde”) with different vocations (social vs economic), and which will serve as a basis for investigations into the theme of Food Governance Structures. This research work consisted of carrying out interviews with the stakeholders involved in Urban Agricultural Projects, as well as on-site visits for analysis and evaluation. An empirical analysis through the NVivo Software is used, which allowed the qualitative analysis of the data. The results show that there are similarities between the different initiatives, such as having a well-structured administrative office headed by a president, treasurer and employees. At the same time, there are a few differences in terms of the type of structure, key priorities and management structure. Indeed, three of the four initiatives evaluated aim to reach out to local residents and to understand the benefits of having agricultural spaces in our cities and to recreate this link with nature, unlike the economic initiative, which focuses more on business and commerce and less on social and educational inclusion.
Despite the inherent potential of and merits in adopting modern agricultural technology, the present-day farmer in Sub-Saharan Africa is yet to catch up with the rest of the world in harnessing this potential. To extend the knowledge in the adoption of technology theory, this study examines factors, in particular farmers’ group participation and access to agricultural extension services on farmers’ adoption of modern agricultural technologies (specifically, the use of fertilizers, chemicals and appropriate plant density) and the consequent impact of adopting these agricultural technologies on farmers’ economic performance (income) in the coastal regions of Kenya. Logit regression and multiple linear regression models were used to analyse a sample of 372 smallholder cashew farmers in the Coastal Province of Kenya in 2018. The results show that access to extension services and group membership have statistically significant effects on adopting modern agricultural technologies, namely on fertilizer and pesticide usage and appropriate planting densities. However, fertilizer usage had a negative effect on economic performance while pesticide application showed no effect, and higher planting density had a positive effect. The study recommends that the policy should prioritize extension programs that leverage local platforms such as farmer groups to disseminate agricultural information and economically feasible technologies, such as appropriate cashew planting density – as this was shown to lead to more profitable agribusiness ventures.
In the Eastern DRC, coffee farmers combine the different sales outlets available to them. Cooperative members sell coffee to the cooperatives they belong to as well as to informal markets, which include a channel of illegal cross-border smuggling. In this conflict affected region, the informal cross-border markets persist irrespective of the presence of cooperatives. This paper seeks to understand the motivating factors of the side-selling behavior of coffee cooperative members. We study the coffee production and sales of 339 cooperative members in the region and use a double hurdle model to understand which farm characteristics relate to the side-selling behavior. The omnipresence of side-selling in the cooperatives suggest that the unstable political and economic environment is conducive to this co-existence of informal trade and cooperative membership. Side-selling seems a deliberate strategy by the farmers that is tolerated by the cooperatives. The results suggest that farmers who are in a more precarious situation are more inclined to engage with informal markets. This is further underscored by the effect of food insecurity and lack of credit. Hence, the informal market is a safety net that allows immediate payment of coffee in contrast to cooperatives that are more formally organized.
Consumers are becoming increasingly concerned about the sustainability of their purchases. The coffee industry has been a leader in developing initiatives that promote the adoption of sustainable practices along the value chain. Labels on coffee packages that denote sustainable attributes are intended to inform the consumer and encourage sustainable consumption. The main objective of this study was to analyze consumers’ knowledge of, and preference for sustainable labels (Fairtrade, Organic USDA, Rain Forest Alliance, and 4C) on coffee in Honduras, a developing low-income and high-quality coffee exporting country. The study also evaluated the consumer’s visual attention to sustainable coffee labels. Data were collected using a questionnaire (including a choice experiment) from a sample of 450 consumers, as well as eye-tracking technology (a subsample of 65 consumers). Although Honduran coffee consumers have low levels of familiarity and knowledge about sustainable labels, they are willing to pay premiums for coffee with these labels (10% to 27% relative to average prices). Consumers pay more attention to the Organic USDA label, which is also the label with the highest willingness to pay value. Overall, the study’s results indicate that there is a domestic market for coffee produced sustainably in Honduras.
It is essential for firms in the agri-food business to ensure specific product attributes in the long run and to avoid reputational damage. Competitive advantages cannot be achieved with such product attributes; however, they must be ensured to remain competitive in the long run. Searching for literature on competitive parity resulted to be very difficult and literature on competitive parity seems to merely exist in strategic management literature. The question arises as to whether competitive parity is also a strategic dimension to which companies must pay attention in strategic management, especially with regard to the allocation of scarce resources. Since the majority of firms in the agri-food business work together in supply chain networks, another research question arises: is competitive parity also relevant at the network-level? To answer these questions a systematic literature review, which is based on deliberately chosen leading journals in the field of strategic management and chain management, is conducted. Results on the firm-level and the network-level show that there is hardly any literature on competitive parity available. This paper aims to contribute to a better theoretical understanding of competitive parity in strategic management. It develops a theoretical frame of chain management which combines the aspects of competitive parity with those of chain management in the agri-food business. From this, managerial implications for focal firms in the agri-food industry as well as implications for future research in this field should be derived.
Arctic food industries offer promising potential for sustainable economic development; however, no certification system currently exists to assure Arctic origin and unique product qualities. We survey 1,602 Canadian consumers to explore attitudes to sustainability, authenticity, and origin in the context of Arctic foods, and assess their use of sustainability labels and trust in different certifiers. A latent class analysis reveals considerable heterogeneity regarding whom consumers trust to certify Arctic foods. While ‘government’ is the most trustworthy certifier, Arctic region-based and Inuit-owned organizations have strong appeal for certain consumer segments. Policy implications for developing an Arctic regional certification system are discussed.
Existing research based on labels, risks and benefits, and cultural differences has focused on consumers’ preferences for genetically modified (GM) food products. Limited attention has been paid to the attitudes toward the source who developed the biotechnology. Because there may be trust issues associated with large multinational firms that are often involved in the development of biotechnology, it remains an unexplored question whether consumers consider who produces the technology when forming opinions about food produced with biotechnology. This study investigates consumers’ attitude toward the source of biotechnology using a choice experiment with GM oranges. The study involved participants from three major orange-consuming countries (United States, Germany, and Spain). Results reveal that participants from all three countries were less willing to pay for GM oranges when the technology originated from multinational agribusiness corporations, compared to public universities and small companies. Further examining the effect of consumers’ perceptions, we found consumers’ perception of corporate distrust and environmental concern negatively influence their attitude toward the source of biotechnology, but their technology acceptance positively affects the attitude. By understanding consumers’ attitudes about the source of biotechnology and factors that may improve the consumer reactions, communication and promotion of new biotechnology food products to improve acceptance from existing and potential consumers are discussed.
This study aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of food outlet choice patterns of Alternative Food System consumers (local and organic consumers) and evaluate if these patterns differ from that of conventional consumers. We conducted a nationwide online survey collecting data from U.S. food shoppers monthly. The data utilized in this study were collected and compiled from July 2016 to November 2019, resulting in 21,135 observations. We measured choices of eight food outlet formats within four categories (high-end, traditional, broad-assortment, and limited-assortment). Further, we examined the varying effects of demographic and household characteristics on food outlet format choices. We found that relative to conventional consumers, alternative food system consumers, who are local- and/or organic-minded, tend to be diversity-seekers who patronize various formats of food outlets. Among the four food outlet categories, we identified several complementary and substitute relationships. The occurrences and strengths of these relationships vary across consumer segments identified based on their preferences for local and organic food.
Agricultural cooperatives in the United States are larger and more complex than ever before. Due to this growth, farmer directors need to up-skill to maximize farmer member benefits. Director education is generally considered a successful strategy for improving financial and strategic performance, yet little research has examined the skills U.S. agricultural cooperative directors need. This research identified skills – and, notably, behaviors – necessary for agricultural cooperative directors to ensure financial and operational success. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with cooperative leaders. Results were consistent across these three groups and suggest that successful directors must possess the following skills and behaviors: financial/ business, governance, board leadership, industry knowledge and strategic planning. Results suggest that educating farmer directors on these skills and behaviors may benefit all farmer members of an agricultural cooperative.