Orthodox consumption theories have not incorporated the overlapping-generations (OLG) model and wealth-stock model, whereas this article explains households’ characters in consumption and savings in countries such as China and some other regions from the viewpoints of social convention, moral formation, ethics, and other informal institutions. The authors exploit and extend the OLG model, introduce the concepts of bequest, gift, and wealth preference to the economic agent’s utility function, then apply optimal conditions to analyzing the characters and problems concerning consumption and savings behavior. Furthermore, they deliberate on the effects of this analysis on government macroeconomic policies and suggest some relevant theoretical thinking and solutions.
This paper studies the process and the performance of transition with the following logic: transition is an objective process in accordance with the general principles of economic history; the objectivity is embodied in the expected economic and social effects of transition, the profound economic and social changes in the course of transition, and the different problems facing different transitional stages. Transition is, at the same time, a subjective process involving the participation of the government and the public; the subjectivity is embodied in the thinking on transition, path selection, policy design, and process control. It requires evaluation, correction, and anticipation on the dynamic process with analysis tools and methods that are normally used to validate the subjective thoughts in the objective world to verify whether effects of the subjective action follow and develop the objective principles. It is under such a logical framework that issues on the settlement of final expenses and the performance assessment of transition raised in this paper focus on the improvement in traditional analysis tools and methods and further apply such improvement to China’s course of transition. The rudimental premise in this study is the combination of the process of transition, all-roundness of development, and phases of evolution.
Chinese historians have considered the 1911 Revolution an incomplete bourgeois revolution, especially in comparison to the more successful 1949 Revolution. On the other hand, in their famous tract in the early 1990s, Li Zehou and Liu Zaifu claimed that a rethinking of the 1911 Revolution should lead us to reject the concept of revolution altogether. In both of these formulations, as stepping stone towards socialism or demonstration that any revolution is futile, the 1911 Revolution is in some way connected to the legitimacy of capitalism. However, in post-war Japan, when Japanese intellectuals were debating the consequences of the American Occupation and Japan's role in the Second World War, the 1911 Revolution had a different significance. Post-war Japanese sinologists often turned to the 1911 Revolution as a symbol of hope, despite its failure. Takeuchi Yoshimi was the pioneer of this intellectual trend and he argued that, unlike the Meiji Ishin, which was a pale imitation of Western modernity, the 1911 Revolution represented a unique affirmation of revolutionary subjectivity, precisely because its initial attempts at modernization failed. Takeuchi and his disciples' discussions of how the 1911 Revolution produced subjectivity out of failure illustrate post-war Japanese sinologists employed the 1911 Revolution in debates about subjectivity and anti-colonialism. An analysis of their writings will open the way to thinking both the 1911 Revolution and its perception in Japan as it relates to the trajectory of capitalism and its discontents in the 20th century.
On July 23, 2007, the Supreme Court of China issued a new judicial interpretation on contractual conflicts. By this Interpretation, the Supreme Court of China publicized contractual conflicts rules. Although a new legal system has been established in resolving conflict of laws in accord with the Law on the Application of Law in Foreign-Related Civil Relations in China (effective on April 1, 2011), there are not many detailed rules concerned on contractual choice of law in this law. As far as contractual conflicts are concerned, the new rules just re-confirm the principles embedded in the 2007 Interpretation. In China contractual conflict disputes still have to largely resort to the 2007 Interpretation.
China has a long history of constitutional jurisprudence, bearing different academic missions in different eras. China’s constitutional jurisprudence, characterized by its academic logic and principled nature, has not only facilitated social development and progress but also actively played academic functions during the Chinese reform and opening up. This paper considers the social changes during the last 40 years of the policy’s implementation as the background and, by employing standardized and literature analysis methods, combs the main progress and evolution of the knowledge system during the 40 years of constitutional jurisprudence study, followed by a look into its future.
Based on major landmark events and the rule of law development, the administrative rule-of-law construction in China, over 40 years since the initiation of the reform and opening up policy, can be divided into four stages: the “recovery” stage; the “rapid development by focusing on administrative legislation” stage; the “implementing the basic policy of law-based governance of the country and focusing on law-based administration of government” stage; and the “simultaneous advancement and integrated construction in building the rule of law in China” stage. Over the past 40 years, China’s administrative rule-of-law construction has achieved fruitful results in terms of theoretical shaping, system construction, and concept popularization. The future construction of the administrative rule of law should promptly respond to the theoretical needs put forward by state governance, administrative changes, emerging science, and technology development, and it should continue to improve the theoretical system of administrative law with Chinese characteristics; we should strengthen legislation in key areas, solve practical problems in the construction of a government under the rule of law, and promote the effect of law enforcement and system implementation. We should also focus on improving the awareness and qualities of the rule of law at all levels of leading cadres and form a good rule of law atmosphere in the entire society.
Abduction and metaphor are two significant concepts in cognitive science. It is found that the both mental processes are on the basis of certain similarity. The similarity inspires us to seek the answers to the following two questions: (1) Whether there is a common cognitive mechanism behind abduction and metaphor? And (2) if there is, whether this common mechanism could be interpreted within the unified frame of modern intelligence theory? Centering on these two issues, the paper attempts to characterize and interpret the generation and evolution of scientific metaphors from the perspective of the cognitive mechanism of abductive inference. Then it interprets the common cognitive mechanism behind abduction and metaphor within Hawkins’ frame of intelligence theory. The commonality between abduction and metaphor indicates the potential to further explore human intelligence.
Some famous Tang Dynasty poems were once abridged by later generations. The earliest abridgements occurred in the Tang Dynasty because the music officials in charge of music intended to make the poems suitable for singing. However, the success of some abridgements was attributed to literary creation. Among the various abridgements of the famous Tang poems, the most successful instances formed a truncated verse by segmenting four lines from the original works. The author holds that this phenomenon in literary history indicated the pursuit of terseness, which was a popular feature of ancient Chinese poetic creation. Moreover, it also reflected the later poets’ criticism and amended the artistic criterion of the Tang poetry.
Whereas scholarship on Zhang Meng’s acclaimed film The Piano in a Factory is scarce and mainly focuses on working-class identities, the present article contributes to the discussion by investigating the film’s tragicomic style. By taking an existentialist viewpoint about the absurd, it demonstrates that the furloughed workers in fact live in an absurdist existence. Moreover, the changing era rather than character flaws is blamed for the absurdity. Specific images are examined in order to reveal a symbolism having to do with the demise of industrialism and the advent of commercialism. While absurdity is the undercurrent, the characters use humor as a strategy to evade, elude, and cope with life. The third section employs theories of comedy to investigate the comicality of the movie, which derives from exaggeration of negative traits in the characters. The paper argues that by manipulating the scenario at the end, Zhang holds out hope for the working-class’ future. Piano is hence able to transcend the absurdist existence and end up with joy, hope and faith.